Friday, 17 May 2013

Boeing 727


The Boeing 727 is a mid-size narrow-body three-engine jet aircraft built byBoeing Commercial Airplanes. It can carry 149 to 189 passengers and later
models can fly up to 2,400 to 2,700 nautical miles (4,400 to 5,000 km) nonstop. Intended for short and medium-length flights, the 727 can use fairly
short runways at smaller airports. It has three Pratt & Whitney JT8D engines below the T-tail, one on each side of the fuselage with a center engine
that connects through an S-duct to an inlet at the base of the fin. The 727 is Boeing's only trijet aircraft, as well as the only one without a conventional tail.

The airliner's middle engine (engine 2) at the very rear of the fuselage gets air from an inlet ahead of the vertical fin through an S-shaped duct. This S-duct
proved to be troublesome due to flow distortion in the duct induced by a surge in the centerline engine on the take-off of the first flight of the 727-100.
This was fixed by the addition of several large vortex generators in the inside of the first bend of the duct.
The 727 is equipped with a retractable tail skid that is designed to protect the aircraft in the event of an over-rotation on takeoff. The 727's fuselage has
an outer diameter of 148 inches (3.8 m) allowing six-abreast seating (three per side) and a single aisle when 18 inches (46 cm) wide coach-class seats are

The 727 is one of the noisiest commercial jetliners, categorized as Stage 2 by the U.S. Noise Control Act of 1972.raft. The 727's JT8D jet engines use older
low-bypass turbofan technology, whereas Stage 3 aircraft utilize the more efficient and quieter high-bypass turbofan design. When the Stage 3 requirement
was being proposed, Boeing engineers analyzed the possibility of incorporating quieter engines on the 727. They determined that the JT8D-200 engine
could be used on the two side-mounted pylons, but the structural changes to fit the larger-diameter engine (49.2 inches (125 cm) fan diameter in the
JT8D-200 compared to 39.9 inches (101 cm) in the JT8D-7) into the fuselage at the number two engine location were prohibitive.

There are two series of 727;
The initial 100 (originally only two figures as in -30) was launched in 1960 and entered service in February 1964.
The 727-200 series was launched in 1965 and entered service in December 1967.

727-100C series--
Convertible passenger cargo version. Additional freight door and strengthened floor and floor beams. Three alternate fits:
•  94 mixed-class passengers
•  52 mixed-class passengers and four cargo pallets (22,700 lb, 10,297 kg)
•  Eight cargo pallets (38,000 lb, 17,237 kg)

QC stands for Quick Change, similar to the Convertible version with a roller-bearing floor for palletised galley and seating and/or cargo to allow much
faster changeover time (30 minutes).

QF stands for Quiet Freighter. A cargo conversion for United Parcel Service, re-engined with Stage III-compliant Rolls-Royce Tayturbofans.

Boeing C-22A
A single 727-30 acquired from the Federal Aviation Administration, which was originally delivered to Lufthansa. This aircraft
served mostly with Southern Command flying from Panama City / Howard Air Force Base.

Boeing C-22B
Four 727-35 aircraft acquired from National Airways by the USAF for transporting Air National Guard and National Guard personnel.

727-200 series
Stretched version of the 727-100. The -200 is 20 feet (6.1 m) longer (153 feet, 2 inches, 46.7 m) than the -100 (133 feet, 2 inches, 40.6 m). A ten-foot
(3-meter) fuselage section was added in front of the wings and another ten-foot fuselage section was added behind them. The wing span and height
remain the same on both the -100 and -200 (108 feet (33 m) and 34 feet (10 m), respectively.

727-200C - Convertible passenger cargo version. One was built.

727-200advanced - MTOW and range increased.

Super27 - Speed increased by 50 mph (80 km/h), Winglets were added to some of these aircraft to increase fuel efficiency.

Boeing C-22C
A single 727-212 aircraft operated by the USAF

More than 208 Boeing 727 aircraft (all variants) remain in commercial airline, private and government service. Most airlines have small numbers but
the following operate five or more aircraft:
•  Amerijet International (6)
•  Cargojet Airways (9 + 1 inactive)[31]
•  FedEx Express (31 727-200)[32]
•  Kalitta Charters (8)
•  Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter (13)[33]
•  Linhas Aéreas Suramericanas (6)
•  Rio Linhas Aéreas (7)
•  Total Linhas Aéreas (6)
•  Transmile Air Services (7)

Niriha Khajanchi  [ MBA Aviation ] 

Saturday, 11 May 2013

Dornier Do 228

The Dornier Do 228 is a small, German, twin turboprop STOL-utility aircraft manufactured by Dornier GmbH (later DASA Dornier, Fairchild-Dornier) from 1981, to 1998. In 1983, Hindustan Aeronautics bought a production licence and manufactures the 228 till this day. Approximately 270 Do 228 were built at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, and Kanpur, India. About 195 are still in service worldwide.
In 2009, RUAG started building a Dornier 228 New Generation in Germany with the fuselage, wings and tail unit manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) in Kanpur (India) and transported to Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich, where RUAG Aviation carries out aircraft final assembly, customized equipment installation, product conformity inspection and aircraft delivery. It is basically the same aircraft with improved technologies and performances, such as a new five blade propeller, glass cockpit and longer range.The first delivery was in September 2010.

1 Design and development
1.1 Do 228NG
2 Operators
2.1 Civilian operators
2.2 Police, Law Enforcement, Para-Military operators
2.3 Military operators
2.4 Former Military operators
3 Incidents
4 Accident summary
5 Specifications (Do 228-212)

Design and development
In the late 1970s, Dornier GmbH developed a new kind of wing, the TNT (Tragflügel neuer Technologie), subsidized by the German Government. Dornier tested it on a modified Do 28D-2 Skyservant and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-110 turboprop engines. Finally, Dornier changed the engine and tested the new aircraft, which  was named Do 128 with two Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5 engines. The company developed a new fuselage for the TNT and TPE 331–5 in two variants (15- and 19-passenger) and named both project-aircraft E-1 (later Do 228-100) and E-2 (later Do 228-200). At ILA '80, Dornier presented the new aircraft in public. Both the prototypes were flown on 28 March 1981 and 9 May 1981 for the first time.
After German certification was granted on 18 December 1981, the first Do 228 entered service in the fleet of Norving in July 1982. British and United States certification followed on 17 April and 11 May 1984 respectively. Over the years Dornier offered the 228 in upgraded variants and with special equipment for special missions. In 1998 the production line was stopped for better development of the successor Fairchild-Dornier 328.

Do 228NG
The Dornier 228NG was produced by RUAG Aviation and certified by EASA on 18 August 2010. First delivery, to a Japanese customer, took place in September 2010. The main changes from the previous Dornier 228-212 model are a new 5-blade propeller made of composite material, more powerful engines and an advanced glass cockpit featuring electronic instrument displays. In 2011, the Bangladesh Navy ordered 2 Do 228NG for the surveillance and search and rescue (SAR) mission. The aircraft are expected to be delivered in early 2013.


Civilian operators
The major operators of the 127 Do 228 aircraft remaining in service in August 2006 include:
A Soriano Aviation (3)
Olympic Airlines (9)
Aerocardal (3)
Aero VIP (Portugal) (2)
Agni Air (3)
African Air Services Leasing (2)
Air Caraïbes (2)
Airlines of Tasmania (1)
Air Marshall Islands (1)
CorpFlite (2)
Bighorn Airways (4)
Daily Air (4)
Divi Divi Air (1)
Dolphin Air (6)
Dornier Aviation Nigeria (15)
GAM Air (Australia) (3)
Gorkha Airlines ()
Jagson Airlines (2)
Indian Airlines (2)
Inter Island Airways (2)
Iran Aseman Airlines (5)
National Cartographic Center of Iran (3)
KaSas Limited (Kenya) (4)
LASSA (Chile)(1)
Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter (6)
Lufttransport (2)
Mandarin Airlines (5)
Manx2 (2)
New Central Airlines (3)
Sita Air (2)
Solar Air (2)
Summit Air (7)
Vision Airlines (8)
Yeti Airlines (2)
Flight Link Tanzania (2)
                       Some 35 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the aircraft. Lufttransport (Norway) operates 2 Dornier 228's and AeroVip (Portugal) operates 2 Do 228, also SATA (Portugal) operated these aircraft.

Police, Law Enforcement, Para-Military operators
    Indian Coast Guard
    Netherlands Coastguard
    Royal Oman Police Air Wing
United Kingdom
    Marine Fisheries Agency

Military operators
    National Air Force of Angola
    Bangladesh Navy - Two Do 228NG on order
    Royal Bhutan Army (Bhutan Army Air Wing)
Cape Verde
    Coast Guard of Cape Verde
    Finnish Border Guard
    German Navy - Operates two Do 228s with one Do 228NG on order
    Indian Air Force - Operates 28 Do 228s with a further 14 on order.
    Indian Navy - Operates 22 Do 228s with a further 12 on order..
    Italian Army - Operates 3 Do 228s.
    Military of Malawi - Operates 1 Do 228.
    Royal Netherlands Air Force
    Royal Air Force of Oman
    Royal Thai Navy - Operates 7 Do 228s.

Former Military operators
    Iranian Air Force


On 24 February 1985, the Polar 3, a Dornier 228 of the Alfred Wegener Institute, was shot down by guerrillas of the Polisario Front over West Sahara. All three crew members died. Polar 3, together with unharmed Polar 2, was on its way back from Antarctica and had taken-off from Dakar, Senegal, to reach Arrecife, Canary Islands.

On 31 July 1993, an Everest Air Dornier Do 228 crashed in the Himalayas, killing all 19 people on board.

September 6, 1997, Royal Brunei Airlines Flight 238 crashed at Lambir Hills National Park on approach to Miri Airport. The crash killed all ten passengers and crew on board..

Jul 30, 1998: A Dornier aircraft crashed while taking off at Cochin airport in Kerala killing all six persons on board and three others who were working inside a naval workshop building onto which it nose-dived and burst into flames

August 7, 1999, TACV Flight 5002 crashed into a side of a mountain on Santo Antão Island, Cape Verde in rain and fog. The accident killed all 18 passengers and crew on the Dornier Do 228.

On 4 December 2003, a Dornier 228 of Kato Air operating Flight 603 was struck by lightning, causing a fracture to the control rod that operated the elevator. The aircraft subsequently landed heavily just short of the runway at Bodø. Both crewmembers sustained serious injuries while both passengers sustained slight injuries. The aircraft, registered LN-HTA, was written off.

August 31, 2004, a Dornier 228 of Landsflug belly-landed at Siglufjordur Airport. The aircraft was then written off and stored at Reykjavik Airport before being moved to the Flugsafn (Air Museum) in Akureyri in 2010.
'.'Polar 4 was severely damaged in January 2005 during a rough landing at the British over-wintering station Rothera on the Antarctic Peninsula. As it was impossible to repair the plane, the aircraft had to be decommissioned. Since then, scientific and logistical tasks of polar flights have been performed by Polar 2.

On September. 17 2006, an 18-seater Dornier 228 Air Force transport plane, carrying 15 senior army officers and three crew members crashed into a hillside, leaving only three surviving passengers and two crew members that sustained serious injuries. The plane with registration number NAF 033 crashed near a remote village in Benue State at about 10:30 a.m. The military officers were members of a committee setup by the government to reposition the Nigerian Army. The plane departed Abuja in the early morning hours of September 17, on its way to Obudu Cattle Ranch in Cross River State where the officers were to hold a retreat and crashed about 18 nautical miles from its destination.

Agni Air Flight 101 crashed outside of Kathmandu in heavy rain on 24 August 2010, killing all 14 people on board.

On 23 June 2011, Tara Air Do 228 9N-AGQ was substantially damaged in a heavy landing and runway excursion at Simikot Airport, Nepal. The aircraft was operating a cargo flight from Nepalgunj Airport.

On 14 May 2012, an Agni Air Dornier 228 crashed while attempting to land at Jomsom Airport, killing 15 of 21 people on board.

On 28 Sept 2012, a Sita Air Flight 601 crashed just one minute after it took off for Lukla Airport from Kathmandu, killing all 19(16 passengers and 3 crew members) on board. Although the plane successfully crash landed near the Manohara river, 50 meters away from the runway of Tribhuvan International Airport, it was destroyed by fire on the ground. Some witnesses stated that the aircraft had been on fire before landing . Later in a press release by TIA, it was confirmed that a bird struck the aircraft, leading to an unusual maneuver which was informed right away to ATC by the captain of the aircraft.

On Dec. 13, 2008, a Dornier 228 C-FYEV with 14 people on board operated by Summit Air Charters, was on approach at Cambridge Bay (YCB) after a flight from Resolute Bay (YRB) when the aircraft collided with terrain about 2,5 km short of the runway. One flight crew member and one passenger received minor injuries.

Accident summary

Hull-loss accidents: 23 with 123 fatalities
Other occurrences: 1 with 3 fatalities
Unfiled occurrences: 1 with 0 fatalities

Specifications (Do 228-212)

Cabin view.
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000
General characteristics
Crew: 2 pilots
Capacity: 19 passengers
Payload: 2,340 kg freight (5,158 lb)
Length: 16.56 m (54 ft 4 in)
Wingspan: 16.97 m (55 ft 8 in)
Height: 4.86 m (15 ft 11 in)
Wing area: 32.0 m² (344 sq ft)
Airfoil: A-5
Empty weight: 3,739 kg (8,243 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 6,600 kg (14,550 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5-252D or -10 variation turboprop, 578 kW (776 shp/715 shp flat rated for -10 powerplants) each

Never exceed speed: 472 km/h  (255 knots, 293 mph)
Maximum speed: 433 km/h (234 knots, 269 mph) at 3,050 m (10,000 ft) (max cruise)
Cruise speed: 315 km/h (170 knots, 196 mph) at 610 m (2,000 ft) (long-range cruise)
Stall speed: 148 km/h (78 knots, 89.7 mph) with flaps
Range: 1,111 km (715 nmi, 823 mi) with full payload
Service ceiling: 8,535 m (28,000 ft)
Rate of climb: 7.5 m/s (1,870 ft/min)

Hijackings: 1 with 0 fatalities
Selection of incidents: 3 with 0 fatalities

Shreejana Rawat (CPL)


Shreejana Rawat [ CPL ]
Aviation NEWS Editor / Blog Master
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