Friday, 30 August 2013

Cessna 140

Cessna 140
The Cessna 140 was originally equipped with an 85 or 90 horsepower (63 or 67 kW) Continental horizontally-opposed, aircooled, four-cylinder piston engine. This model has a metal fuselage and fabric wings with metal control surfaces. The larger Cessna 170 was a four seat 140 with a more powerful engine.

Cessna 140A
The final variant of the Cessna 140 introduced in 1949 was the 140A which had a standard Continental C90 engine producing 90 hp (67 kW), aluminum covered wings and a single strut replacing the dual "V" struts and jury strut s fitted on earlier models.


Common modifications to the Cessna 120 and 140 include:

*"Metalized" wings, where the fabric is replaced with sheet aluminum, eliminating the need to periodically replace the wing fabric.

*The installation of landing gear extenders to reduce the tendency of the aircraft to nose-over on application of heavy braking. These were factory-optional equipment.

*Installation of rear-cabin "D" side windows on 120s that were not originally so equipped; some pilots feel that the 120's visibility to the rear is inadequate without them.

*Installation of electrical systems on 120s that were not originally so equipped, allowing owners to install an electric starter, more sophisticated avionics and/or lights for night flying.

Wednesday, 28 August 2013

McDonnell Douglas DC-10

   Douglas DC-10 

The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engine widebody Jet Airliner manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. The DC-10 has range for medium- to long-haul flights, capable of carrying a maximum of 380 passengers. Its most distinguishing feature is the two turbofan engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. The model was a successor to McDonnell Douglas's DC-8 for long-range operations, and competed in the same markets as the Lockheed L-1011 Tristar, which has a similar layout to the DC-10.
Production of the DC-10 ended in 1989 with 386 delivered to airlines and 60 to the U.S. Air Force as air-to-air refueling tankers, designated the KC-10 Extender.[2] The largest operator of the DC-10 is U.S. cargo airline FedEx Express. The DC-10 was succeeded by the related McDonnell Douglas MD-11. Boeing, who merged with McDonnell Douglas in the 1990s, conducted an upgrade program for old DC-10s, equipping several with a glass cockpit, leading to the re-designation as MD-10s.


Following an unsuccessful proposal for the U.S. Air Force's CX-HLS (Heavy Logistics System) in 1965, Douglas Aircraft began design studies based on its CX-HLS design. In 1966, American Airlines offered a specification to manufacturers for a widebody aircraft smaller than the Boeing 747 but capable of flying similar long-range routes from airports with shorter runways. The DC-10 became McDonnell Douglas's first commercial airliner after the merger between McDonnell Aircraft Corporation and Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967. An early DC-10 design proposal was for a four-engined double deck wide-body jet airliner with a maximum seating capacity of 550 passengers similar in length of a DC-8. The proposal was shelved in favor of a trijet single-deck wide-body airliner with a maximum seating capacity of 399 passengers, and similar in length to the DC-8 Super 60.
The DC-10 was first ordered by launch customers American Airlines with 25 orders, and United Airlines with 30 orders and 30 options in 1968. The first DC-10, a series 10, made its maiden flight on August 29, 1970.Following a test program with 929 flights covering 1,551 hours, the DC-10 received its type certificate from the FAA on July 29, 1971. It entered commercial service with American Airlines on August 5, 1971 on a round trip flight between Los Angeles and Chicago. United Airlines began DC-10 service on August 16, 1971. American's DC-10s had 206 seats and United's had 222; both had six-across seating in first-class and eight-across (four pairs) in coach. The DC-10's similarity to the Lockheed L-1011 in passenger capacity and launch date resulted in a sales competition which affected profitability of the aircraft.

British Caledonian DC-10-30 at London Gatwick Airport in 1988
The first DC-10 version was the "domestic" series 10 with a range of 3,800 miles (3,300 nmi, 6,110 km) with a typical passenger load and a range of 2,710 miles (2,350 nmi, 4,360 km) with maximum payload. The series 15 had a typical load range of 4,350 miles (3,780 nmi, 7,000 km). The series 20 was powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofan engines, whereas the series 10 and 30 engines were General Electric CF6. Before delivery of its aircraft, Northwest's president asked that the "series 20" aircraft be redesignated "series 40" because the aircraft was much improved over the original design. The FAA issued the series 40 certificate on October 27, 1972.

A FedEx Express MD-10-10, a modernized DC-10-10
The series 30 and 40 were the longer range "international" versions. The main visible difference between the models is that the series 10 has three sets of landing gear (one front and two main) while the series 30 and 40 have an additional centerline main gear. The center main two-wheel landing gear (which extends from the center of the fuselage) was added to distribute the extra weight and for additional braking. The series 30 had a typical load range of 6,220 mi (10,010 km) and a maximum payload range of 4,604 mi (7,410 km). The series 40 had a typical load range of 5,750 miles (9,265 km) and a maximum payload range of 4,030 miles (3,500 nmi, 6,490 km).
Eventually, the DC-10 was able to distinguish itself from its competitor with two engine options, as well as earlier introduction of longer range variants than the L-1011. The 446th and final DC-10 rolled off the production line in December 1988 and was delivered to Nigeria Airways in July 1989. The DC-10 was assembled at McDonnell Douglas's Douglas Products Division in Long Beach, California.[2] As the final DC-10s were delivered McDonnell Douglas had started production of its successor, the MD-11.


Northwest Airlines DC-10-30 at London Gatwick Airport in 2003
The DC-10 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane, powered by three turbofan engines. Two engines are mounted on pylons that attach to the bottom of the wings, while the third engine is encased in a protective banjo-shaped structure that is mounted on the top of the rear fuselage. The vertical stabilizer, with its two-segment rudder, is mounted on top of the tail engine banjo. The horizontal stabilizer and its four-segment elevator, is attached to the sides of the rear fuselage in the conventional manner. The airliner has a retractable tricycle landing gear. To enable higher gross weights, the later -30 and -40 series have an additional two-wheel main landing gear, which retracts into the center of the fuselage.
It was designed for medium to long-range flights that can accommodate 250 to 380 passengers, and is operated by a cockpit flight crew of three. The fuselage has underfloor stowage for cargo and baggage.


DC-10-30 flight deck
Original variants[
The DC-10-10 is the initial passenger version, produced from 1970 to 1981. The DC-10-10 was equipped with GE CF6-6 engines, which was the first civil engine version the CF6 family. A total of 122 were built.
The -10CF is a convertible passenger and cargo transport version of the -10. Eight were built for Continental Airlines and one for United Airlines.[19]
The -15 variant was designed for use at hot, high-altitude airports. The series 15 is basically a -10 fitted with higher-thrust GE CF6-50C2F (derated DC-10-30 engines) powerplants. The -15 was first ordered in 1979 by Mexicana and Aeroméxico. Seven were completed between 1981 and 1983.

Longer range variants

A Biman Bangladesh Airlines DC-10-30 on short final to Frankfurt am Main Airport

Japan Airlines DC-10-40
A proposed version of the DC-10-10 with extra fuel tanks, 3-ft (0.9 m) extensions on each wingtip and a rear center landing gear. It was to use Pratt & Whitney JT9D-15 turbofan engines, each producing 45,500 lbf (203 kN) of thrust, with a maximum takeoff weight of 530,000 lb (240,400 kg). But engine improvements led to increased thrust and increased takeoff weight. Northwest Orient Airlines, one of the launch customers for this longer range DC-10 requested the name change to DC-10-40.

A long-range model and the most common model produced. It was built with General Electric CF6-50 turbofan engines and larger fuel tanks to increase range and fuel efficiency, as well as a set of rear center landing gear to support the increased weight. It was very popular with European flag carriers. A total of 163 were built from 1972 to 1988 and delivered to 38 different customers.The model was introduced in service on November 30, 1972, with Swissair and KLM as its first customers


The convertible cargo/passenger transport version of the -30. The first deliveries were to Overseas National Airways and Trans International Airlines in 1973. A total of 27 were built.
The extended range version of the -30. The -30ER aircraft has a higher maximum takeoff weight of 580,000 lb (263,160 kg), are powered by three GE CF6-50C2B engines each producing 54,000 lbf (240 kN) of thrust and are equipped with an additional fuel tank in the rear cargo hold.[25] It has an additional 700 mi of range to 6,600 mi (5,730 nmi, 10,620 km). The first of this variant was delivered to Finnair in 1981. A total of six were built and five -30s were later converted to -30ERs.

Also known as the DC-10-30F. This was the all freight version of the -30. Production was to start in 1979, but Alitalia did not confirm its order then. Production began in May 1984 after the first aircraft order from FedEx. A total of 10 were built.

The first long-range version fitted with Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines. Originally designated DC-10-20, this model was renamed DC-10-40 after a special request from Northwest Orient Airlines as the aircraft was much improved compared to its original design, with a higher MTOW (on par with the Series 30) and more powerful engines. The airline's president wanted to advertise he had the latest version.The company also wanted their aircraft to be equipped with the same engines as their Boeing 747s for commonality.Northwest Orient Airlines and Japan Airlines were the only airlines to order the series 40 with 22 and 20 aircraft, respectively. Engine improvements led to the DC-10-40s delivered to Northwest featuring Pratt & Whitney JT9D-20 engines producing 50,000 lbf (222 kN) of thrust and a MTOW of 555,000 lb (251,815 kg). The -40s for Japan Airlines were equipped with P&W JT9D-59A engines that produced a thrust of 53,000 lbf (235.8 kN) and a MTOW of 565,000 lb (256,350 kg). 42 were built from 1973 to 1983.

A proposed version with Rolls-Royce RB211-524 engines for British Airways. The order never came and the plans for the DC-10-50 were abandoned.[30]
DC-10 "Twin"
A proposed downsized DC-10 version with two CF-6 engines, likely designed to compete against the Airbus A300.

Tanker versions

A USAF KC-10 Extender during refueling
The KC-10 Extender is a military version of the DC-10-30CF for aerial refueling. The aircraft was ordered by the U.S. Air Force and delivered from 1981 to 1988. A total of 60 were built.
The KDC-10 is an aerial refueling tanker for the Royal Netherlands Air Force. These were converted from civil airliners (DC-10-30CF) to a similar standard as the KC-10. Also, commercial refueling companies Omega Aerial Refueling Services and Global Airtanker Service operate two KDC-10 tankers for lease. Four have been built.

The DC-10 Air Tanker during a water drop demonstration
The DC-10 Air Tanker is a DC-10-based firefighting tanker aircraft, using modified water tanks from Erickson Air-Crane.

MD-10 upgrade
The MD-10 is retrofit cockpit upgrade to the DC-10 and a re-designation to MD-10. The upgrade included an Advanced Common Flightdeck (ACF) used on the MD-11.[34] The new cockpit eliminated the need for the flight engineer position and allowed common type rating with the MD-11. This allows companies such as FedEx Express, which operate both the MD-10 and MD-11, to have a common pilot pool for both aircraft. The MD-10 conversion now falls under the Boeing Converted Freighter program where Boeing's international affiliate companies perform the conversions.

See also: List of McDonnell Douglas DC-10 operators
On January 8, 2007, Northwest Airlines retired its last remaining DC-10 from scheduled passenger service, replacing it with an Airbus A330 for a route between Minneapolis-St. Paul and Honolulu,thus ending the aircraft's operations with major airlines. Regarding the retirement of Northwest's DC-10 fleet, Wade Blaufuss, spokesman for the Northwest chapter of the Air Line Pilots Association said, "The DC-10 is a reliable airplane, fun to fly, roomy and quiet, kind of like flying an old Cadillac Fleetwood. We're sad to see an old friend go.The DC-10 is going to be remembered as a better cargo plane than passenger plane," said Richard Aboulafia, an analyst with the Teal Group.In November 2006 ATA Airlines announced that they had purchased seven of Northwest's remaining DC-10s to replace their Lockheed L-1011s. Omni Air International purchased six of Northwest's DC-10 aircraft.

The Orbis DC-10 Flying Eye Hospital, February 2009
The aging models are now largely used as dedicated freight aircraft. Non-airline operators include the Royal Netherlands Air Force with three DC-10-30CF-based KDC-10 tanker aircraft, the USAF with its 59 KC-10s, and the 10 Tanker Air Carrier with its modified DC-10-10 used for fighting wildfires. Orbis International has used a single DC-10-10 converted into a flying eye hospital. Surgery is performed on the ground and the operating room is located between the wings for maximum stability. Orbis chose to replace its aging DC-10 with a MD-10, that was converted from a DC-10 jointly donated by FedEx and United Airlines. The MD-10 eye hospital is expected to be flying in 2010. Additionally, one former American Airlines DC-10-10 is operated by the Missile Defense Agency as the Widebody Airborne Sensor Platform (WASP).

Interior of a Biman Bangladesh Airlines DC-10-30. Biman is the only passenger airline operating the DC-10 as of 2013.
Biman Bangladesh Airlines is the only passenger airline operating DC-10 aircraft with two DC-10-30s in service in mid-2013. They are to be phased out in November 2013.
In January 2013, there were 75 DC-10s and MD-10s in service with commercial operators FedEx Express (64), Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter (4), Biman Bangladesh Airlines (3), Transportes Aéreos Bolivianos (2), and others with fewer aircraft.

Incidents and accidents

As of May 2013, the DC-10 was involved in 52 aviation accidents and incidents,[48] including 32 hull-loss accidents, with 1,261 occupant fatalities. It has been involved in nine hijackings and criminal events resulting in 171 occupant fatalities. Despite its troubled beginnings in the 1970s, which gave it an unfavorable reputation, the DC-10 has proved a reliable aircraft.The DC-10's initially poor safety record continuously improved as design flaws were rectified and fleet hours increased.The DC-10's lifetime safety record is comparable to similar second-generation passenger jets as of 2008.

Cargo door problem
The DC-10 was designed with cargo doors that opened outward instead of conventional inward-opening "plug-type" doors. Using outward-opening doors allowed the DC-10's cargo area to be completely filled since the door was not occupying usable space. To secure the door against the outward force from the pressurization of the fuselage at high altitudes, outward-opening doors must use heavy locking mechanisms. In the event of a door lock malfunction, there is great potential for explosive decompression.

American Airlines Flight 96
A problem with the outward-opening cargo door first became publicly known on June 12, 1972, when American Airlines Flight 96 lost its aft cargo door shortly after takeoff from Detroit Metro Airport. Before Flight 96 took off, an airport employee had forced the door shut, which, due to the cargo door's design, gave an outward appearance of being securely locked despite the internal locking mechanism's not being fully engaged. Subsequently, when the plane reached approximately 11,750 feet (3,580 m) in altitude, the cargo door blew out, causing an explosive decompression which partially collapsed the cabin floor at the rear of the plane. This collapsed section of the floor cut or impeded many of the control cables to the empennage control systems necessary to fly the plane.The crew was able to accomplish an emergency landing by using the ailerons, right elevator, some limited rudder trim and asymmetrical thrust of the wing engines.
During the investigation of the near-crash of Flight 96, U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigators found that the DC-10's cargo door design was dangerously flawed. The door relied on a set of heavy steel hooks to secure it against the door frame. When the hooks were fully engaged, an outside lever on the cargo door could be depressed, which drives a set of locking pins through the hooks, holding them in place. The NTSB investigation found that it was possible to close the outside lever without the hooks being fully engaged, and there would be no outward signs that the locking mechanism was not engaged. Even though the hooks and locking pins were not in the closed position, the cargo door indicator in the cockpit would still register the door as being secured. This combination of factors caused Flight 96 to take off without its aft cargo door being fully locked. And when the door blew out at altitude, the sudden decompression of the airplane caused a large pressure difference to build up between the cabin above and the cargo bay below. This depressurization loading is what caused the cabin floor to collapse. And because the DC-10 was designed with its hydraulics and control wires routed through the floor beams, the collapse of the cabin floor caused a loss of vital flight controls.

Turkish Airlines Flight 981
On March 3, 1974, an almost identical cargo door blow-out caused Turkish Airlines Flight 981 to crash into a forest near the town of Ermenonville, France shortly after leaving Paris. All 346 people were killed in one of the deadliest air crashes of all time.Circumstances of this crash were very similar to the previous accident. The cargo door had not been fully locked, though it appeared so to both cockpit crew and ground personnel. The Turkish aircraft had a different seating configuration that exacerbated the effects of decompression, which caused the aircraft's floor to collapse into the cargo bay. Control cables running through the floor of the plane were severed when the floor collapsed and this rendered the aircraft uncontrollable. Crash investigators found that the DC-10's relief vents were not large enough to equalize the pressure between the passenger and cargo compartments during explosive decompression.Following this crash, a special subcommittee of the House of Representatives investigated the cargo door issue and the FAA's certification of the original design. An airworthiness directive was issued, and all DC-10s underwent mandatory door modifications. The DC-10 experienced no more major incidents related to its cargo door after FAA-approved changes were made.

American Airlines Flight 191
The DC-10 experienced another major accident with the crash of American Airlines Flight 191 on May 25, 1979. Flight 191 lost its number one (left wing) engine after taking off from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, USA.As the engine separated upwards, it ripped through the leading edge of the wing, rupturing hydraulic lines. Without hydraulic pressure, the left wing leading edge slats retracted due to the force of the air moving over the wings. That, in turn, increased the stall speed of the left wing above the engine failure climb out speed being used by the pilots. When the left wing stalled, the aircraft rapidly rolled to the left and crashed before the flight crew could recover. All 271 people on board, plus two on the ground, were killed.
The United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) officials discovered that a maintenance procedure was the culprit. American Airlines mechanics removed the engine and its pylon together, rather than removing the engine from the pylon then the pylon from the wing, as recommended by McDonnell Douglas. This was done using a forklift and the pylon was inadvertently cracked in the process. The short-cut procedure, believed to save many man hours on maintenance, was used by three major airlines, although McDonnell Douglas advised against it. In November 1979, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) fined American Airlines $500,000 for using this faulty maintenance procedure. Continental Airlines was fined $100,000 on a similar charge.
The Chicago accident also highlighted a major deficiency in the DC-10 design: its lack of a locking mechanism to maintain the position of the leading-edge slats in the event of a hydraulic or pneumatic failure. Other wide-body aircraft of the day carried such a feature. When the engine pulled up and over the wing, it tore out electrical wiring in the wing, thus rendering vital warning instruments in the cockpit inoperable. Following the Chicago crash, the FAA withdrew the DC-10's type certificate on June 6, 1979, which grounded U.S. DC-10s. It also banned all DC-10s from U.S. airspace. These measures were rescinded on July 13 after modifications were made to the slat actuation and position systems, along with stall warning and power supply changes.

United Airlines Flight 232
Another major DC-10 crash was United Airlines Flight 232 disaster at Sioux City, Iowa, USA, on July 19, 1989. The number two (tail) engine suffered an uncontained fan disk failure in flight, which damaged all three hydraulic systems and rendered the hydraulic flight controls inoperable. The flight crew, led by Captain Al Haynes and assisted by a senior pilot flying as a passenger (Dennis E. "Denny" Fitch), performed an emergency landing by constantly adjusting the thrust of the remaining two engines. The crew managed to fly the aircraft onto the runway in a partially controlled manner, and 185 of the 296 people on board survived in spite of the destruction of the plane during that landing.
The DC-10 included no cable backup for the hydraulic powered flight controls because it was considered nearly impossible for three hydraulic systems to fail during one flight, and furthermore the control surfaces are too large to be moved without hydraulic assistance. However, all three hydraulic systems were in close proximity, directly beneath the tail engine. The #2 engine explosion hurled shrapnel that ruptured all three lines, resulting in total loss of control to the elevators, ailerons, spoilers, horizontal stabilizer, rudder, flaps and slats.
Following the UAL 232 accident, hydraulic fuses were installed in the #3 hydraulic system in the area below the #2 engine on all DC-10 aircraft to ensure that sufficient control capability remained if all three hydraulic system lines should be damaged in the tail area. It is still possible to lose all three hydraulic systems elsewhere. That nearly occurred to a cargo airliner in 2002 during takeoff, when a main gear tire exploded in the wheel well. The damage in the left wing area caused total loss of pressure in the #1 and the #2 hydraulic systems. The #3 system was dented but not penetrated.

Other notable accidents and incidents

Other notable incidents and accidents are:
November 3, 1973 - National Airlines Flight 27, a DC-10-10 cruising at 39,000 feet, experienced an uncontained failure of the right (#3) engine. One cabin window separated from the fuselage after it was struck by shrapnel from the exploding engine. The passenger sitting next to that window was forced through the opening and ejected from the plane. His body was found two years later. The crew initiated an emergency descent, and landed the aircraft safely.
October 31, 1979 - Western Airlines Flight 2605, a DC-10-10, collided with construction equipment, while landing on a closed runway at Mexico City International Airport. 72 of the 88 people on board and one person on the ground were killed.
November 11, 1979 - Aeromexico DC-10 entered a sustained stall while climbing through FL 300, over Luxembourg, Europe. The pilots failed to recognize the stall condition and instead, blamed the heavy buffeting on the #3 engine, which they shut down, while they continued to hold the nose up. The plane finally nosed down on its own and the pilots recovered before reaching FL 180, after they quit pulling back on the control column. The engine was restarted, the declaration of emergency canceled and the flight continued to Miami, Florida. Ground inspection revealed 4 feet missing from each of the outboard elevator tips, including their balance weights. The NTSB found the failure of the flight crew to monitor their flight instruments led to the sustained stall buffeting, which imposed structural overload, causing the failure of both outboard elevator tips and balance weights.
November 28, 1979 - Air New Zealand Flight 901, DC-10-30 ZK-NZP crashed into Mount Erebus on Ross Island, Antarctica during a sightseeing flight over the continent, killing all 257 on board. The accident was caused by the flight coordinates being altered without the flight crew's knowledge, combined with unique Antarctic weather conditions.

Monday, 26 August 2013

Saab 2000 50-Seat twin Turboprop Regional Airliner

The Saab 2000

Country of origin      

50 seat twin turboprop regional airliner


The Saab 2000 was a stretched 50 seat, faster development of the successful 340.
Charter a Saab 2000 Aircraft

The SAAB 2000 IS a twin-ENGINE 50 seat regional turboprop airliner produced BY SAAB AB, which IS 
headquartered IN Stockholm, Sweden. The SAAB 2000 IS an improved development of the 30 seat SAAB 340, 
WITH its major improvements being more powerful Rolls-Royce Allison AE 2100A ENGINES (THEN built BY 
Allison) rated AT 4591 shp, a modified wingspan, AND a 24 ft 9 IN (7.55 m) fuselage stretch over the baseline of the 
SAAB 340, allowing seating FOR 20 more passengers. WHEN compared TO other turboprop airliners, the SAAB 
2000 IS ONE of the fastest ones developed, being able TO cruise AT a maximum speed of 368 knots (682 km/h) AT 
25,000 ft. The SAAB 2000 delivers high-speed performance combined WITH turboprop economy. The SAAB 2000 
can operate FROM high altitude airfields, taking off WITH maximum load AND fuel even AT very hot temperatures, 
WHILE offering rapid rates of climb AND a service ceiling of 31,000 ft.

The Saab 2000, with a cruise speed of over 665km/h (360kt), is one of the fastest turboprop airliners developed. 
It combines near jet speeds, including near jet climb and descent rates, with turboprop economy. Saab launched 
development of the 2000 in mid December 1988 with a launch order from Crossair for 25 (plus a further 25 on option) 
following definition and design studies that revealed a market for a high speed regional turboprop.

The initial Saab 2000 development plan would have seen the 2000 in service in the second half of 1993, but delays 
pushed this back until the second half of 1994. The Saab 2000's first flight took place on March 26 1992, and 
certification from Europe's Joint Airworthiness Authorities and the USA's FAA was granted in March and April 1994 
respectively. Service entry with Crossair occurred a few months later.

While retaining the same cross section as the Saab 340, the 2000 is 7.55m (24ft 9in) longer (seating 15 more
 passengers), while the same wing section was retained but the 2000's wing span is 15% greater than the 340's, 
and the engines are positioned further outboard.

The 2000 was the first civil application of the advanced Allison (now Rolls-Royce) AE-2100 turboshaft (derived
 from the military T406 developed for the revolutionary V-22 Osprey tiltrotor), driving slow turning six blade props. 
The flightdeck features a Collins Pro Line 4 EFIS avionics suite with six colour CRT displays. Cabin noise is reduced 
by an active noise control system comprising 72 microphones and 36 speakers which generate anti phase noise.

Several European aerospace firms participated in the Saab 2000 manufacturing program including CASA which 
designed and built the wing, Westland, which manufactured the rear fuselage, and Valmet of Finland which built the

Lack of sales and profitability forced Saab to cease 340 and 2000 production, with the lines winding up in 1998. 
The last 2000 was delivered to Crossair in April 1999.

Two 3096kW (4152shp) Allison AE-2100A turboprops driving six blade constant speed Dowty propellers.

Max cruising speed 682km/h (368kt) at 25,000ft, long range cruising speed 594km/h (321kt). Initial rate of climb 
2250ft/min. Service ceiling 31,000ft. High speed range with 50 passengers and reserves 2185km (1180nm), range at 
long range cruising speed 2868km (1549nm).

Operating empty 13,800kg (30,423lb), max takeoff 22,800kg (50,265lb).

Wing span 24.76m (81ft 3in), length 27.28m (89ft 6in), height 7.73m (25ft 4in). Wing area 55.7m2 (600.0sq ft).

Flightcrew of two. Normal passenger accommodation for 50 at three abreast and 81cm (32in) pitch. 
Max seating for 58 at three abreast and 76cm (30in) pitch, with repositioned galley and wardrobe.

63 built.

In 2000, 54 were in airline service with three used as corporate transports. 

Saab 2000 Exterior
Performance Specifications
Jet Type     SAAB-2000
Category     Turboprop Airliner
Max Pax     50
Cruise Speed     424 mph
Range     1783 miles
Min Runway     6086 ft

Interior Specifications
Cabin Length     54.80 ft
Cabin Width     7.10 ft
Cabin Height     6.00 ft
Lavatory     Full
Bag Capacity     930 cubic ft

The Tupolev Tu-134

Country of origin      
Russia Type      
Short range airliner

Tupolev Tu-134 - Definition
An Tu-134 sits on the tarmac
An Aeroflot Tu-134 sits on the tarmac

The Tupolev Tu-134 was a Russian twin-engined airliner, similar to the American Douglas DC-9.

One of the most used aircraft in the former Warsaw Pact countries, the number in active service is lowering because 
of noise restrictions.

The Tu-134 was meant as a replacement of the Tu-124, which didn't fulfill the role it was intended for. Seating 70-80
 passengers with a range of about 2400km it was the short-range mainstay of Aeroflot.

It would be the last Tupolev passenger aircraft with a glass nose, and the later B variant had the radar (which was chin
-mounted on the A models) in the nose. Compared to Western short-ranged jet airliners, the Tu-134 had a much sharper
 sweepback angle (35 degrees, while most Western short-haulers had sweepbacks between 25 and 28 degrees). 
Like many other Tupolev aircraft, the aircraft was fitted with a hefty low-pressure landing gear, retracting into nacelles 
extending from the trailing edges of the wings. This allows the aircraft to operate from unpaved airstrips.

Production variants

All A variants have been built with the distinct glass nose, but some are modified to the B standard (closed nose):

    Tu-134, glass nosed version, first series seating 70
    Tu-134A, second series, seating 80
    Tu-134A-3, second series, with uprated engines
    Tu-134B, second series, 80 seats and closed nose
    Tu-134B-3, second series, closed nose and uprated engines. 

Some of the B models have long-range tanks fitted under the fuselage; these are visible as a prolific bulge



For many years the Tupolev Tu-134 was the standard short haul jet airliner in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe.

The Tupolev design bureau was responsible for the Soviet Union's first jet powered airliner, the Tu-104 (which was 
based on the Tu-16 `Badger' bomber), and the Tu-104's smaller brother the Tu-124. Both of these short range jetliners
 suffered from a number of performance shortfalls however, 
thus prompting development of the Tu-134.

The initial Tu-134 design was based fairly closely on the Tu-124, and for a time was designated the Tu-124A. 
However Tupolev decided to reconfigure the aircraft to feature rear fuselage mounted engines and a Ttail, resulting in 
the new designation.

Six development Tu-134s were built, with the first flying during 1962. Production began in 1964 although it was not 
until September 1967 that Aeroflot launched full commercial services.

Initial production was of the standard fuselage length Tu-134, while the stretched Tu-134A entered Aeroflot service in 
the second half of 1970. Seating up to 76 in a single class, the Tu-134A differed from the Tu-134 in having a 2.10m 
(6ft 11in) fuselage stretch, a reprofiled nose, more powerful D30 engines and an APU.

Other versions are the Tu-134B with a forward facing position for the third crew member between and behind the 
pilots, the Tu-134B1 which has a revised interior to seat up to 90 passengers without a galley, and the Tu-134B3
 which can seat 96 with full galley and toilet facilities retained. 

Tu-134 - Two 64.5kN (14,490lb) Soloviev D30 turbofans. Tu-134A - Two 66.7kN (14,990lb) Soloviev D30 Series

Tu-134 - Max cruising speed 900km/h (485kt), economical cruising speed 750km/h (405kt). Normal operating ceiling
 39,730ft. Range with 7000kg (15,420lb) payload and reserves 2400km (1295nm), with 3000kg (6600lb) payload 
3500km (1890nm). Tu-134A - Max cruising speed 900km/h (485kt), economical cruising speed 750km/h (405kt).
 Range with 5000kg (11,025lb) payload and reserves 3020km (1630nm).

Tu-134 - Operating empty 27,500kg (60,627lb), max takeoff 44,500kg (98,105lb). Tu-134A - Operating empty 
29,050kg (64,045lb), max takeoff 47,000kg (103,600lb).

Tu-134 - Wing span 29.00m (95ft 2in), length 34.35m (112ft 8in), height 9.02m (29ft 7in). Wing area 127.3m2 
(1370.3sq ft). Tu-134A - Same except length 37.05m (121ft 7in), height 9.14m (30ft 0in).

Flightcrew of three, comprising two pilots and a navigator. Tu-134 seats 72 in a single class. Tu-134A seats up to
 84 passengers in a single class at four abreast, or 12 first class and 54 economy class at four abreast in a two class
 arrangement. Tu-134B3 can seat up to 96 in a single class.

Production estimated at over 700, most for Aeroflot, but approximately 170 exported to various east European 
airlines and other Soviet client states. Approx 365 were in service in late 1998.

The Tupolev Tu-134 is a twin-engined short- to medium-range narrowbody jet airliner with a capacity of maximum 95 passengers developed by the Soviet Design Bureau OKB Tupolev.
Crew    3-4
Passengers    95
Propulsion    2 Turbofan Engines
Engine Model    Solowjew / Soloviev D-30-II
Engine Power (each)    30,3 kN    6812 lbf
Speed    885 km/h    478 kts
  550 mph
Service Ceiling    11.890 m    39.009 ft
Range    1.891 km    1.021 NM
1.175 mi.
Empty Weight    29.050 kg    64.044 lbs
max. Takeoff Weight    47.000 kg    103.617 lbs
Wing Span    29,00 m    95,1 ft
Wing Area    127,3 m²    1370 ft²
Length    37,05 m    121,6 ft
Height    9,14 m    30,0 ft
First Flight    1963
Production Status    out of production
Total Production    ca. 700
ICAO Code    T134
NATO Code    Crusty
Data for (Version)    Tupolev / Tupolew Tu-134A

The Tu-134 is a development of the Tupolev Tu-124.