Thursday 28 February 2013

Pilatus PC-6 Porter

The Pilatus PC-6 Porter is a single-engined Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) utility aircraft designed by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland. First flown in 1959, the PC-6 has been built in both piston engine and turboprop powered versions, and has been built both by Pilatus and by Fairchild Hiller in the United States. It remains in production as of August 2011.

Design and development

The first prototype made its maiden flight on 4 May 1959 powered by a 254 kW (340-shp) piston engine. The first Turbo Porter, powered by a turboprop, flew in 1961. The Turbo Porter received an engine upgrade in 1963, which increased its power to its present value of 410 kW (550-shp).
In the United States, the Porter was manufactured under license by Fairchild Hiller. In service with the U.S. Air Force, it received the designation AU-23A Peacemaker. In U.S. Army use, it was designated UV-20 Chiricahua.

Operational history

The PC-6 is noted for its Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) performance on almost any type of terrain - it can take off within a distance of 640 feet (195 m) and land within a distance of 427 feet (130 m) while carrying a payload of 2,646 lbs (1,200 kg). Thanks to its STOL performance, the PC-6 holds the world record for highest landing by a fixed wing aircraft, at 18,865 feet (5,750 m), on the Dhaulagiri glacier in Nepal.
Due to these characteristics, they are frequently used to access short grass mountaintop airstrips in the highlands of Papua Province (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea.


PC-6/340 Porter
Initial production version, powered by a 254-kW (340-hp) Lycoming GSO-480-B1A6 flat-six piston engine. Max take-off weight 1,070 kg (2,360 lb).

PC-6/340-H1 Porter
As PC-6/340, but with modified landing gear and increased weight (2,016 kg (4,444 lb)).

PC-6/340-H2 Porter
As for H-2, but with maximum take-off weight increased to 2,200 kg (4,850 lb).

As PC-6/340, but powered by a 261 kW (350 hp) Lycoming IGO-540-A1A piston engine.

As for /340 H1 but with O-540 engine.

As for 340 H2 with O-540 engine.

PC-6/A Turbo-Porter
Initial turboprop powered version, fitted with a 390 kW (523 shp) Turboméca Astazou IIE or IIG turboprop engine.

PC-6/A1 Turbo-Porter
This 1968 version was powered by a 427-kW (573-shp) Turbomeca Astazou XII turboprop engine.

PC-6/A2 Turbo-Porter
This 1971 version was powered by a 427-kW (573-shp) Turbomeca Astazou XIVE turboprop engine.

PC-6/B Turbo-Porter
This version was powered by a 410-kW (550-shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-6A turboprop engine.

PC-6/B1 Turbo-Porter
Similar to the PC-6/B, but fitted with a 410-kW (550-shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop engine.

PC-6/B2-H2 Turbo-Porter
Fitted with a 507-kW (680-shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engine.

PC-6/B2-H4 Turbo-Porter
The B2-H4 has improved airframe structuring and extended, upturned wingtips.

PC-6/C Turbo-Porter
One prototype built by Fairchild Industries in the USA, powered by a 429-kW (575-shp) Garrett TPE331-25D turboprop engine.

PC-6/C1 Turbo-Porter
Similar to the PC-6/C, but fitted with a 429-kW (575-shp) Garrett TPE 331-1-100 turboprop engine.

PC-6/C2-H2 Porter
Developed by Fairchild Industries in the USA. It was powered by a 485-ekW (650-ehp) Garrett TPE 331-101F turboprop engine.

PC-6/D-H3 Porter
One prototype, fitted with a 373-kW (500-hp) avco Lycoming turbocharged piston engine.

AU-23A Peacemaker
Armed gunship, counter-insurgency, utility transport version for the U.S. Air Force. It was used during the Vietnam War in the early 1970s. 35 were built under licence in the USA by Fairchild Industries. All aircraft were sold to Royal Thai Air Force.

Designation for U.S. version, cancelled 1979.

UV-20A Chiricahua
STOL utility transport version for the U.S. Army. Two UV-20As were based in West Berlin during the 1970s and 1980s.

PC-8 Twin Porter
Twin-engined version flown in 1967, but not subsequently developed.

Specifications (PC-6 B2 Turbo-Porter)

General characteristics

Crew:                      one, pilot
Capacity:                 up to ten passengers
Payload:                  1,130 kg (2,491 lb)
Length:                   11.00 m (36 ft 1 in)
Wingspan:               15.87 m (52 ft 0¾ in)
Height:                    3.20 m (10 ft 6 in)
Wing area:               30.15 m² (324.5 sq ft)
Airfoil:                     NACA 64-514
Aspect ratio:             8.4:1
Empty weight:          1,270 kg (2,800 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 2,800 kg (6,173 lb)
Powerplant:              1 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop, 410 kW (550 shp)(downrated from 507 kW (680 shp))


Never exceed speed:          280 km/h (151 knots, 174 mph)
Maximum speed:               232 km/h[15] (125 knots, 144 mph)
Cruise speed:                    213 km/h (115 knots, 132 mph) at 3,050 m (10,000 ft)
Stall speed:                       96 km/h (52 knots, 60 mph) (flaps down, power off)
Range:                             730 km (394 nmi, 453 mi) with maximum payload
Ferry range:                     1,612 km (870 nmi, 1,002 mi) with maximum internal and underwing fuel
Service ceiling:                 8,197 m (25,000 ft)
Rate of climb:                   4.8 m/s (941 ft/min)

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Wednesday 27 February 2013

Piper PA-46 Malibu

The Piper PA-46 is a family of light aircraft manufactured by Piper Aircraft of the United States. The aircraft is powered by a single engine and has the capacity for one pilot and five passengers. Early Malibus were all piston-engined, but a turboprop version, the Malibu Meridian, is also available.
The PA-46 is the third single-engine piston aircraft with a pressurized cabin to ever reach the market, after the Mooney M22 and Cessna P210Centurion. It is sold mainly to civilian customers.

Piper PA-46 Malibu

Role                      General aviation
National origin      United States of America
Manufacturer      Piper Aircraft
First flight      30 November 1979


Work on the PA-46 began in the late 1970s, with a prototype (the PA-46-300T) first flying on November 30, 1979. The type was announced in November 1982, apparently to compete with Cessna's newest creation of the era, the P210 Centurion. Like the Centurion, the Malibu was to feature cabin pressurization (5.5 psi), a feature not included on the prototype.


PA-46-310P Malibu

The first example of the initial production version flew in August 1982, and FAA certification was obtained in September 1983. Deliveries started one month later. 404 aircraft with Continental TSIO-520 engines were built before this model was replaced in production by the 350P.
The PA-46-310P is powered by a Teledyne Continental Motors TSIO-520BE engine rated at 310 hp (230 kW). The PA-46-310P has lower fuel consumption, greater range, and the ability to cruise at "lean-of-peak." The PA-46-310P has a maximum cruising range of 1,550 nautical miles (with reserves), while the PA-46-350P initially had a maximum cruising range of only 1,055 nautical miles (1,954 km), although now increased to 1,345 nautical miles (2,491 km).
The PA-46-310P Malibu has set several world speed records: Seattle to New York set November 23, 1987 at 259.27 mph; Detroit to Washington, DC set January 4, 1989 at 395.96 mph; and Chicago to Toronto set on January 8, 1989 at 439.13 mph. All 3 records were set by Steve Stout in his 1986

Malibu N9114B.

The Continental-powered Malibu was discontinued in 1986 following a series of incidents and accidents attributed to engine failures. One such accident resulted in a settlement in which Teledyne Continental Motors paid over US$32,000,000 to a pilot injured in the crash of a Malibu. Some attribute the poor record of the original Malibu to improper engine operation. Unlike virtually every other Continental engine in production at the time, the TSIO-520BE was designed to be operated with mixture set to the lean side of peak TIT ("Lean of Peak"). However, many pilots chose to operate with the mixture on the rich side of peak TIT ("Rich of Peak"), which is how most other airplane engines were operated at the time. On that engine, such operation caused excessively high engine temperatures and cylinder pressures, and led to premature failures.

PA-46-350P Malibu Mirage

Production of the Malibu Mirage commenced in October 1988. New features included a more powerful Textron Lycoming TIO-540-AE2A 350 hp (260 kW) engine and a new wing. This model remains in production as of 2011. Various changes have occurred over the model years. Earlier models had an all King panel and later this became largely Garmin. The Avidyne Entegra glass cockpit is now standard in the Mirage with the Garmin G1000 optional. In 1995, the pilot's windshield became a glass assembly (earlier it had been acrylic glass with a heat strip overlay). In 1996, numerous switches were moved to an overhead console. In 1999, the Mirage gained the strengthened wing designed for the turboprop Meridian. The base price for a 2011 Malibu Mirage is US$997,500

PA-46-500TP Malibu Meridian

In 1997, Piper announced its intention to market a turboprop-powered version of the Malibu, and flew a prototype the following year powered by a Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-42A of 500 shp (370 kW). Certification was achieved in September 2000 and deliveries began in November that year. Changes made to allow for turboprop power include larger wings and tail surfaces. In 2009, Piper began offering the Meridian with a three screen version of the Garmin G1000 including the Garmin GFC 700 autopilot as a replacement for the Avidyne Entegra system.
The Meridian's base price in 2012 was $2.13 million.

PA-46R-350T Matrix

In October 2007 Piper announced the Matrix, an unpressurized version of the Mirage. It seats six and its base price is $819,000 (2010 USD). The new model has been designated as the PA-46R-350T, indicating retractable landing gear, 350 horsepower (260 kW), and turbocharging.
Piper Aircraft is marketing the Matrix as a cabin-class aircraft for Cirrus SR-22 and Cessna 400 owners to step up to.
Standard equipment on the Matrix includes a built-in oxygen system, Avidyne Entegra glass cockpit, S-Tec 55X autopilot and air conditioning.
Major options on the Matrix are a de-ice system, an "Enhanced Situational Awareness Package", speed brakes, an avionics package featuring the Avidyne TAS610 dual antenna traffic advisory system, GWX-68 Weather Radar, and, beginning in 2010, the Garmin G1000 avionics system with twin 10" PFD's and a 15" MFD.
The Matrix's powerplant is a turbocharged Lycoming TI0-540-AE2A producing 350 hp (260 kW). The aircraft's performance includes a cruise speed of 215 knots at 25,000 feet (7,600 m), 215 knots (398 km/h) at 17,500 feet (5,300 m) and 188 knots (348 km/h) at 12,000 feet (3,700 m). Maximum take-off weight is 4,340 lb (1,970 kg) and an empty weight of 2,937 lb (1,332 kg) giving a standard useful load of 1,421 lb (645 kg).
Matrix deliveries began in early 2008.


The JetPROP DLX is an aftermarket turbine engine conversion for the PA-46-310P Malibu and PA-46-350P Malibu Mirage. Originally certified in August 1998 with a Pratt & Whitney PT6A-34, conversions 90 and above used the P&W PT6A-35 when the -34 was discontinued. A lower cost JetPROP DL conversion became available in October 2003 utilizing the P&W PT6A-21. As of September 2008, 233 JetPROP conversions had been completed and delivered by Rocket Engineering of Spokane, WA. Twenty percent of the entire PA-46 fleet have been converted.

Specifications (PA-46-310P Malibu)

General characteristics

Crew:                  one
Capacity:             five passengers
Length:               28 ft 4 3⁄4 in (8.655 m)
Wingspan:           43 ft 0 in (13.11 m)
Height:                11 ft 3 1⁄2 in (3.442 m)
Wing area:           175 sq ft (16.3 m2)
Empty weight:      2,354 lb (1,068 kg)
Gross weight:       4,100 lb (1,860 kg)
Fuel capacity:       120 U.S. gallons (450 L; 100 imp gal)
Powerplant:         1 × Continental TSIO-520-BE 6-cylinder, turbocharged, fuel-injected, horizontally  opposed aircraft engine, 310 hp (230 kW)


Maximum speed:           234 kn (269 mph; 433 km/h)
Cruise speed:                196 kn (226 mph; 363 km/h) at 55% power
Stall speed:                   58 kn (67 mph; 107 km/h)
Range:                         1,555 nmi (1,789 mi; 2,880 km)
Service ceiling:             25,000 ft (7,600 m)
Rate of climb:               1,143 ft/min (5.81 m/s)
Wing loading:                24.3 lb/sq ft (119 kg/m²)

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Tuesday 26 February 2013

Piper Aerostar

The Piper Aerostar (formerly Ted Smith Aerostar) is an American twin-engined propeller-driven executive or light transport aircraft, designed by Ted R. Smith. It was originally built by Ted Smith Aircraft Company, which after 1978 became part of the Piper Aircraft Corporation.

Role                           light transport aircraft
National origin          United States
Manufacturer          Ted Smith Aircraft Company
                                 Piper Aircraft Corporation
Designer                  Ted R. Smith
First flight                  1967
Status                  Out of production Active service
Produced                  1967-1984
Number built          1010


Ted Smith flew the first Aerostar 600 in October 1967. It was a mid-wing cantilever monoplane powered by two wing-mounted Avco Lycoming piston engines, with a tricycle landing gear. It was fitted with luxury accommodation for six. Also produced, and the base of most of the subsequent models, was a version with a turbocharged engine, the Aerostar 601.


The Aerostar is one of the fastest twin piston engine aircraft produced, with cruise speeds from 220 kt (408 kph) for the earliest 600 models to 261 kt (483 kph) for the later 700 models. Light construction, low drag and high powered engines also contribute to fast climb rates.


The aircraft were originally built at Van Nuys in California, when in 1968 the company was bought by the American Cement Company. The acquisition was not a success and in 1969 the company was sold again to Butler Aviation, owners of Mooney Airplane Company. The new company was named Aerostar Aircraft Corporation and it was intended to move production to a Mooney plant at Kerrville, Texas. In 1972 Ted Smith bought back all the rights to the aircraft and continue to manufacture Aerostars in Santa Maria, California. He also introduced the pressurized Aerostar 601P. The 601P had engines with higher-rate turbochargers to feed a cabin pressurisation system. Another variant was the stretched Aerostar 700 Superstar. In 1976 the company name was changed to the Ted Smith Aerostar Corporation. Ted Smith died in 1976.


Initial production model with two 290hp Lycoming IO-540-K engines, 282 produced under four different company names.

Model 600 with some minor detail changes.

Designation used for aircraft sold in Europe.

601 (later PA-61) 
This aircraft still holds the land closed speed record for a production piston twin
Model 600 with turbocharged engines, 117 built.

601B (later PA-61)
Model 601 with increased wingspan, 44 built.

601P (later PA-61P)
Pressurised version of the 601 with increased gross weight, 492 built

602P Sequoia (later PA-60)
Piper developed version of the 601P with the 290 hp Lycoming TIO-540-AA1A5 engines, 124 built.

A pressurised Aerostar with 310 hp TIO-540 engines, one built.

700 Superstar
Prototype of stretched fuselage variant with two IO-540M engines.

602P with counter-rotating Lycoming TIO-540-U2A engines, 26 built, also designated the PA-60

New modification of 700P with a reinforced nose gear allowing for higher takeoff weight

601P with stretched fuselage, enlarged tail and two 400 hp Lycoming engines, one built.

Speedstar 850
A modification to replace the twin piston engines with a single nose mounted turboprop.

Specifications (700P)

General characteristics

Crew:                    1
Capacity:               5 passengers
Length:                 34 ft 9¾ in (10.61 m)
Wingspan:             36 ft 8 in (11.18 m)
Height:                 12 ft 1 in (3.68 m)
Wing area:            178.2 ft2 (16.56 m2)
Empty weight:      4,275 lb (1,939 kg)
Gross weight:       6,315 lb (2,864 kg)
Powerplant:         2 × Avco Lycoming TIO-540-U2A flat six counter-rotating piston, 350 hp (261  kW) each each


Maximum speed:          306 mph (492 km/h)
Cruise speed:               242 mph (390[3] km/h)
Range:                        1,024 miles (1,648 km)
Service ceiling:            25,000 ft (7,620 m)
Rate of climb:             1,840 ft/min (9.4 m/s)

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Monday 25 February 2013

Production of P.68C by Partenavia

Production of P.68C by Partenavia in Italy started 1978, followed by P.68TC in 1980. Production agreement made with TAAL in 1992; European manufacture ended in 1994 after 400 aircraft.TAAL programme aimed at meeting growing demand for this category of aircraft within India, and to tap export potential to neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia. Initial plans covered two demonstrators (assembled from Italian kits) and up to 30 production aircraft. First TAAL-assembled aircraft, a P.68 Observer 2 (VT-TAA), made its first flight 17 March 1994; second was Viator. Three more assembled from Italian parts: two P.68Cs for Mardia Chemicals and Triveni Sheet Glass; and one P.68TC demonstrator. Last of this kit-built batch completed mid-1996.Local manufacture of the aircraft began as planned on 1 January 1997. Roll-out of first TAAL-built aircraft (a P.68C) took place 20 January 1998; this aircraft due for delivery to an Indian charter operator in March 1998; three more aircraft completed by March 1998. More than 450 P.68C are still flying worldwide.
Power plants  
P.68B - Two 150kW (200hp) Lycoming IO360A1B fuel injected flat four piston engines driving two blade constant speed propellers. P.68TC - Two 155kW (210hp) turbocharged Textron Lycoming TIO360C1A6Ds.

P.68B - Max speed 322km/h (174kt), max cruising speed 306km/h (165kt), economical cruising speed 295km/h (160kt). Initial rate of climb 1600ft/min. Service ceiling 20,000ft. Range at economical cruising speed 1700km (920nm). P.68TC - Max speed 352km/h (190kt), max cruising speed 324km/h (175kt), economical cruising speed 278km/h (150kt). Initial rate of climb 1550ft/min. Service ceiling 27,000ft. Range with max payload 555km (300nm), range with max fuel 1924km (1040nm).

P.68B - Empty 1200kg (2645lb), max takeoff 1960kg (4321lb). P.68TC - Empty equipped 1300kg (2866lb), max takeoff 1990kg (4387lb).

P.68B - Wing span 12.00m (39ft 5in), length 9.35m (30ft 8in), height 3.40m (11ft 2in). Wing area 18.6m2 (200.0sq ft). P.68TC - Same except for length 9.55m (31ft 4in).

Standard seating arrangement for seven, comprising one pilot and six passengers, or two pilots and five passengers.

400 built through to 1994, including 13 preproduction P.68As and 150 P.68B Victors. Six assembled by TAAL in India where licence production is planned.


The prototype P-166 first flew on November 16, 1957, and deliveries of the initial P-166AL-1 production model took place from April 1959. Just 23 were built before production switched to the P-166BL-2 Portofino, which featured more powerful 285kW (380hp) engines and an increased max takeoff weight of 3800kg (8377lb). Five Portofinos were built, while several earlier P-166s were converted to that standard with the more powerful engines.
The Italian Air Force received 51 of the military model, the P-166ML-1, for communication and training duties. This had an extra cockpit door, a larger main loading door, and a strengthened floor.
The Piaggio P-166 has been built in only small numbers but has been used in a wide variety of utility missions.
Intended for civil use when designed in the late 1950s, the P-166 features a large cabin which has been put to use in a variety of civil, military and quasi military roles, while its gull wing with tip tanks and pusher engines configuration like that on the P-136 amphibian, ensures it is easily identified.
P-166 - Two 255kW (340hp) Lycoming GSO-480-B1C6 geared and supercharged flat six piston engines driving three blade constant speed propellers. 
P-166DL-3/SEM - Two 450kW (600shp) AlliedSignal LTP-101-700 turboprops.

P-166 - Max speed 357km/h (193kt), max cruising speed 333km/h (180kt), economical cruising speed 280km/h (151kt). Initial rate of climb 1240ft/min. Service ceiling 25,000ft. Max range 1930km (1040nm).
P-166DL-3/SEM - Max speed 400km/h (215kt). Range with max payload 1390km (750nm), range with max fuel 2130km (1150nm).

P-166 - Empty 2350kg (5180lb), max takeoff 3680kg (8115lb).
P-166DL-3/SEM - Empty equipped 2688kg (5926lb), max takeoff 4300kg (9480lb).

P-166 - Wing span (without tip tanks) 14.25m (46ft 9in), length 11.61m (38ft 1in), height 5.00m (16ft 5in). Wing area 26.6m2 (286sq ft). 
P-166DL-3/SEM - Same except for wing span over tip tanks 14.69m (48ft 3in), length (including chin mounted radar) 11.88m (39ft 0in).

Flightcrew of one or two and standard seating for eight or nine in main cabin in airliner configuration. Max seating for 12 in P-166C. Executive configuration seats five or six with toilet and bar. Air ambulance can carry two stretchers and two medical attendants.

Approximately 145 P-166s of all models built, including many for government and military customers. New production aircraft built on demand.


The innovative Avanti has been a slow seller despite its modern features, and jet like performance but turboprop operating costs.
Development of the Avanti dates back to program launch in 1981. Gates Learjet participated in Avanti development from 1983 and would have built the Avanti's forward fuselage, but instead withdrew from the program in January 1986. Not deterred by Gates' withdrawal, Piaggio assumed total control of the program, and all tooling and three forward fuselages for what would have been the Learjet P.180 were transferred to Italy.
Piaggio flew the first of two P.180 prototypes on September 23 1986, the second flew in May 1987. Italian certification was granted in March 1990, the first production Avanti flew that May and the first customer delivery took place in September 1990.
Two 635kW (850shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A66 turboprops driving five blade constant speed Hartzell props.

Max speed 732km/h (395kt), max cruising speed 644km/h (348kt). Initial rate of climb 2950ft/min. Service ceiling 41,000ft. Range with one pilot, six passengers and IFR reserves 2595km (1400nm).

Empty equipped 3400kg (7500lb), max takeoff 5240kg (11,550lb).

Wing span 14.03m (46ft 1in), length 14.41m (47ft 4in), height 3.94m (12ft 11in). Wing area 16.0m2 (172.2sq ft).

Flightcrew of one or two (certificated for single pilot operation). Max seating in main cabin for nine in high density airliner configuration. Standard seating for seven in individual seats. Executive/VIP seating for five.

Orders placed for approximately 42 Avantis (including three for the Italian air force for use as regional transports), with 30 built by early 1995. Production restarting against an Italian air force order for 12.


The PC-12 is a King Air class and size turboprop originated at Switzerland, aimed at corporate transport and regional airliner operators. It is the latest in a line of single engined PT6 powered Pilatus products.
Pilatus announced it was developing the PC-12 at the National Business Aircraft Association's annual convention in October 1989. First flight of the first of two prototypes occurred on May 31 1991. Certification was originally planned for mid 1993 but a redesign of the wings with the addition of winglets to ensure performance guarantees were met pushed this back, with Swiss certification awarded on March 30 1994 and US FAA FAR Part 23 approval following on July 15 1994.
One 895kW (1200shp) takeoff rated Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A67B turboprop driving a four blade constant speed Hartzell propeller.

Max cruising speed at 25,000ft 500km/h (270kt), economical cruising speed 430km/h (232kt). Initial rate of climb 1680ft/min. Max operating altitude 30,000ft. Max range at economical cruising speed with VFR reserves 4187km (2260nm). Range at max cruising speed with IFR reserves 2965km (1600nm).

PC12 - Standard empty 2600kg (5732lb), max takeoff 4500kg (9920lb).

Wing span 16.23m (52ft 3in), length 14.40m (47ft 3in), height 4.27m (14ft 0in). Wing area 25.8m2 (277.8sq ft).

Flightcrew of one or two pilots (certificated for single pilot). Seating for nine in main cabin in regional airliner configuration. Corporate/executive transport configurations typically seat six in main cabin. Combi passenger/freight version seats four passengers in main cabin plus freight pallet.

Over 280 PC-12s delivered by end of April.


The Pilatus Porter and Turbo Porter STOL utilities are renowned for their exceptional STOL performance and low speed handling and have sold strongly on the strength of their performance.
The high wing taildragger Porter was designed to perform a range of utility roles, and flew for the first time on May 4 1959. The first production aircraft built were delivered from 1960 and were powered by a six cylinder GSO480 piston engine, but it was not long after that a turboprop powered development flew.
The first PC6/A Turbo Porter flew in May 1961, powered by a 390kW (523shp) Turboméca Astazou II turboprop. The majority of PC6s are PC6/Bs, powered by the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A. PC6/Cs were powered by a 310kW (575shp) AiResearch TPE331, and were first delivered in 1965.

PC6H2 - One 255kW (340hp) Lycoming GSO480B1A6 geared and supercharged six cylinder piston engine driving a three blade constant speed propeller. PC6/B2H4 - One 410kW (550shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A27 turboprop.

PC6H2 - Max speed 233km/h (126kt), max cruising speed 216km/h (117kt), economical cruising speed 190km/h (103kt). Initial rate of climb 550ft/min. Service ceiling 17,400ft. Max range with no reserves 1500km (810nm). PC6/B2H4 (Utility version) - Economical cruising speed 213km/h (115kt). Initial rate of climb 940ft/min. Max operating ceiling 25,000ft. Range with max payload at economical cruising speed and no reserves 730km (395nm), range with max internal fuel 925km (500nm), with external fuel 1610km (870nm).

PC6H2 - Empty 1250kg (2755lb), max takeoff 2200kg (4850lb). PC6/B2H4 - Empty 1130kg (2491lb), max takeoff 2800kg (6173lb).

PC6H2 - Wing span 15.14m (49ft 8in), length 10.20m (33ft 6in), height tail down 3.20m (10ft 6in). Wing area 28.8m2 (310sq ft). PC6/B2H4 - Wing span 15.87m (52ft 1in), length 10.90m (35ft 9in), height 3.20m (10ft 6in). Wing area 30.2m2 (324.5sq ft).

Pilot and passenger on flightdeck, with standard seating for six in main cabin. Max seating for 11 including pilot. Alternative layouts include two stretchers and three medical attendants, or 10 skydivers. Some equipped for agricultural spraying.

Over 500 Porters of all versions have been built, including 100 under licence in the USA and against various military orders.


The Aerostar - which in its higher powered forms can lay claim to being the fastest piston twin GA aircraft built - was designed by Ted Smith, who was also responsible for the Aero Commander twins.
Smith's original intention in designing the Aerostar was to develop a family of single and piston twins, twin turboprop and even twin jet powered versions of the same basic aircraft. However the Aerostar appeared in piston twin form only. Smith began design work on the Aerostar in late 1964, with a prototype making its first flight two years later in November 1966.
The prototype was powered by 120kW (160hp) Lycoming IO-320s, but the Aerostar was placed into production from 1968 as the Aerostar 600 with 215kW (290hp) IO-540s.
600A - Two 215kW (290hp) Lycoming IO-540-K1J5 fuel injected flat six piston engines driving three blade constant speed Hartzell propellers. 
PA-60-700P - Two 260kW (350hp) turbocharged and counter rotating TIO-540-U2As.

600A - Max speed 418km/h (226kt), long range cruising speed 357km/h (193kt). Initial rate of climb 1800ft/min. Service ceiling 21,200ft. Max range with reserves 2225km (1200nm). 
PA-60-700P - Max speed 490km/h (264kt), max cruising speed 484km/h (261kt), economical cruising speed 390km/h (211kt). Initial rate of climb 1755ft/min. Service ceiling 25,000ft. Range at max cruising speed 1250km (675nm), at economical cruising speed with max fuel 2150km (1160nm).

600A - Empty 1695kg (3757lb), max takeoff 2495kg (5500lb).
PA-60-700P - Empty 1940kg (4275lb), max takeoff 2864kg (6315lb).

600A - Wing span 10.41m (34ft 2in), length 10.61m (34ft 10in), height 3.89m (12ft 1in). Wing area 15.8m2 (170sq ft).
PA-60-700P - Same except for wing span 11.18m (36ft 8in). Wing area 16.6m2 (178.2sq ft).

Typical seating for six.

1010 Aerostars built, including 491 by Ted Smith and 519 by Piper.


The simple and economical Cub is one of the most well loved light aircraft of all time, and helped make flying an affordable pastime for thousands of pilots in the years surrounding World War 2.
The Piper Cub began life as the Taylor E-2, designed by C.G. Taylor. In the middle of 1930, his company, Taylor Brothers Aircraft Corporation, went bankrupt. Businessman William Piper, who had made large profits from the oil industry, purchased the assets of the company and formed Taylor Aircraft Company with C.G. Taylor as the Chief Engineer.
J-3C-65 - One 50kW (65hp) Continental A-65-1 flat four piston engine driving a two blade fixed pitch propeller.
PA-12 - One 75kW (100hp) Lycoming O-235 flat four.

J-3C-65 - Max speed 148km/h (80kt), typical cruising speed 132km/h (71kt). Initial rate of climb 450ft/min. Service ceiling 12,000ft. Range 402km (217nm). 
PA-12 - Max speed 183km/h (99kt), normal cruising speed 170km/h (90kt). Service ceiling 12,600ft. Range 580km (313nm).

J-3C-65 - Empty 290kg (640lb), max takeoff 500kg (1100lb).
PA-12 - Empty 430kg (950lb), max takeoff 795kg (1750lb).

J-3C-65 - Wing span 10.75m (35ft 3in), length 6.79m (22ft 3in), height 2.03m (6ft 8in). Wing area 16.6m2 (178.5sq ft). 
PA-12 - Wing span 10.83m (35ft 6in), length 6.74m (22ft 1in), height 2.08m (6ft 10in). Wing area 16.7m2 (179.3sq ft).

Typical seating for two in tandem in the J-2 and J-3 Cub, J-4 Cub Coupe and PA-11 Cub Special, three in the J-5 Cub Cruiser and PA-12 Super Cruiser, and four in the PA-14 Family Cruiser.

Production includes 348 E-2s, 1169 J-2s, 20056 J-3s (including 5677 military O-59, L-4 and NE), 1251 J-4 Cub Coupes, 1506 J-5 Cub Cruisers, 1541 PA-11 Cub Specials, 3759 PA-12 Super Cruisers and 238 PA-14 Family Cruisers.


The Super Cub is one of Piper's most successful and long lived aircraft programs, with production spanning over four decades.
The PA-18 Super Cub was the ultimate development of Piper's original aircraft, the J-3 Cub (described separately). The four seat development of the Cub, the PA-14 Family Cruiser, was the basis for the Super Cub, but the later differed in having seating for two in tandem (as on the Cub), all metal wings and, in its initial form, a 65kW (90hp) Continental C-90 in the PA-18-90 or a 80kW (108hp) Lycoming O-235 engine in the PA-18-105. The Super Cub flew for the first time in 1949, and certification was awarded on November 18 that year. The first production Super Cubs were delivered from late 1949, the type replacing the PA-11 Cub Special on Piper's production lines.
PA-18-95 - One 65kW (90hp) Continental C-90-12F or 8F flat four piston engine driving a two blade fixed pitch propeller. 
PA-18-150 - One 110kW (150hp) Lycoming O-320.

PA-18-95 - Max speed 180km/h (97kt), max cruising speed 161km/h (87kt). Initial rate of climb 710ft/min. Service ceiling 15,750ft. Max range with no reserves 580km (313nm). PA-18-150 - Max speed 210km/h (113kt), max cruising speed 185km/h (100kt), economical cruising speed 170km/h (90kt). Initial rate of climb 960ft/min. Service ceiling 19,000ft. Range at max cruising speed and no reserves 740km (400nm).

PA-18-95 - Empty 367kg (910lb), max takeoff 680kg (1500lb).
PA-18-150 - Empty 429kg (946lb), max takeoff 794kg (1750lb).

PA-18-95 - Wing span 10.73m (35ft 3in), length 6.83m (22ft 5in), height 2.02m (6ft 9in). Wing area 16.6m2 (178.5sq ft).
PA-18-150 - Same except for length 6.88m (22ft 7in).

Typical seating for two in tandem.

Almost 7500 Super Cubs (including 1700 military) built until 1981 when production originally ceased. Piper production for WTA between 1982 and 1988 totalled 250. Piper production between 1988 and 1994 approximately 100.

Er. Aakanksha Saxena [B.Tech-EE]

Software Trainee/Blog Master