Monday, 25 February 2013

Lockheed C-130 Hercules Medium Range Fighter

The Lockheed C-130 can be seen as a symbol of strength, durability and versatility in the history of aviation. It was primarily developed as a transport aircraft, but a lot of other 'works' has been performed by this aviation hero too. The development of the C-130 started in 1951 to fulfill a US Air Force requirement for a tactical freighter powered by turboprop engines. In more than half a century 2,200 aircraft have been built and production still continues. 
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built originally by Lockheed, now Lockheed Martin. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medical evacuation, and cargo transport aircraft. The versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship (AC-130), for airborne assault, search and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, and aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. Over 40 models and variants of the Hercules serve with more than 60 nations.
The C-130 entered service with U.S. in the 1950s, followed by Australia and others. During its years of service, the Hercules family has participated in countless military, civilian and humanitarian aid operations. The family has the longest continuous production run of any military aircraft in history. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft—after the English Electric Canberra, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Tupolev Tu-95, and Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker—to mark 50 years of continuous use with its original primary customer, in this case, the United States Air Force. The C-130 is also the only military aircraft to remain in continuous production for 50 years with its original customer, as the updated C-130J Super Hercules.
General characteristics
Crew: 5 (two pilots, navigator, flight engineer and loadmaster)
C-130E/H/J cargo hold: length, 40 feet (12.31 meters); width, 119 inches (3.12 meters); height, 9 feet (2.74 meters). Rear ramp: length, 123 inches (3.12 meters); width, 119 inches (3.02 meters)
C-130J-30 cargo hold: length, 55 feet (16.9 meters); width, 119 inches (3.12 meters); height, 9 feet (2.74 meters). Rear ramp: length, 123 inches (3.12 meters); width, 119 inches (3.02 meters)
92 passengers or
64 airborne troops or
74 litter patients with 2 medical personnel or
6 pallets or
2–3 Humvees or
2 M113 armored personnel carriers
Payload: 45,000 lb (20,000 kg)
Length: 97 ft 9 in (29.8 m)
Wingspan: 132 ft 7 in (40.4 m)
Height: 38 ft 3 in (11.6 m)
Wing area: 1,745 ft² (162.1 m²)
Empty weight: 75,800 lb (34,400 kg)
Useful load: 72,000 lb (33,000 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (70,300 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Allison T56-A-15 turboprops, 4,590 shp (3,430 kW) each
Maximum speed: 320 knots (366 mph, 592 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,060 m)
Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph, 540 km/h)
Range: 2,050 nmi (2,360 mi, 3,800 km)
Service ceiling: 33,000 ft (10,060 m) empty;[56] 23,000 ft (7,077 m) with 42,000 pounds (19,090 kilograms) payload ()
Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)
Takeoff distance: 3,586 ft (1,093 m) at 155,000 lb (70,300 kg) max gross weight;[55] 1,400 ft (427 m) at 80,000 lb (36,300 kg) gross weight[57]
Westinghouse Electronic Systems (now Northrop Grumman) AN/APN-241 weather and navigational radar[58]

Lockheed Jetstar
The Lockheed JetStar (company designations L-329 and L-1329; designated C-140 in USAF service) is a business jet produced from the early 1960s through the 1970s. The JetStar was the first dedicated business jet to enter service. It was also one of the largest aircraft in the class for many years, seating ten plus two crew. It is distinguishable from other small jets by its four engines, mounted on the rear of the fuselage in a similar layout to the larger Vickers VC10 airliner that first flew several years later, and the "slipper"-style fuel tanks fixed to the wings.
Lockheed VC-140B. The bare metal on the fin at the trim hinge is easily visible here. The extensive de-icing system on the tail surfaces and wing leading edge is also prominent.
The JetStar has a fairly typical business jet layout, with a swept wing and a cruciform tail. The wing has a 30° sweepback and features large fuel tanks at about half-span, extending some distance in front and behind the wing. The wing also includes slats along the front of the wing outboard of the tanks, while double-slotted trailing-edge flaps span the entire rear surface. The horizontal stabilizer is mounted about half way up the vertical stabilizer to keep it clear of the jetwash. One feature is that trim is provided by pivoting the entire vertical stabilizer, which leaves a distinctive unpainted area at that base of the fin that is noticeable in most pictures. This arrangement, called a flying stabilizer, is now standard on most larger airplanes. A speed brake is located on the underside of the fuselage to aid deceleration for landing. The original prototypes used a tricycle landing gear with one wheel per leg, but after an accident in 1962 the nose gear was modified with two tires.[3]
The JetStar is a relatively heavy aircraft for its class, at 42,500 lb (19,278 kg). Maximum cruising speed is Mach 0.8, or 567 mph (912 km/h) at 21,000 ft (6,401 m). Range is typically quoted as 2,500 mi (4,023 km) with a 3,500 lb (1,588 kg) payload. Typically interiors feature seating for eight with a full-sized lavatory, or a slightly denser arrangement for ten. The JetStar is one of the few aircraft of its class that allowed a person to walk upright in the cabin, although to do this the aisle was sunk slightly so that the seats were raised on either side.[4] The windows are relatively large.
The JetStar II is generally similar, with a number of detail changes. The cockpit area has somewhat more "modern" looking nose and window arrangement, larger engines, and most notably, the fuel tanks are larger and sit with their upper surfaces flush with the wing, rather than being centered on it.
Specifications (JetStar II)
General characteristics
Crew: two pilots & typically one flight attendant
Capacity: 8-10 passengers
Length: 60 ft 5 in (18.41 m)
Wingspan: 54 ft 5 in (16.59 m)
Height: 20 ft 5 in (6.22 m)
Wing area: 542.5 ft² (50.4 m²)
Empty weight: 24,750 lb (11,226 kg)
Loaded weight: 41,535 lb (18,840 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 44,500 lb (20,185 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Garrett TFE731-3[10] turbofan, 3,700 lbf (16.5 kN) each
Maximum speed: 547 mph (476 knots, 883 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9,145 m)
Cruise speed: 504 mph (438 knots, 811 km/h)
Range: 2,995 mi (2,604 nmi, 4,820 km)
Service ceiling: 43,000 ft (13,105 m)
Rate of climb: 4,150 ft/min (21.1 m/s)

Lockheed L-100 Hercules
The Lockheed L-100 Hercules is the civilian variant of the prolific C-130 military transport aircraft made by the Lockheed Corporation. Its first flight occurred in 1964. Longer L-100-20 and L-100-30 versions were developed. L-100 production ended in 1992 with 114 aircraft delivered.
In 1959, Pan American ordered 12 GL-207 Super Hercules to be delivered by 1962, it was to be powered by four 6,000 eshp Allison T61 turboprops. It was to be 23 ft 4 in (7.11 m) longer than the C-130B, a variant powered by 6,445 Rolls-Royce Tynes and a jet-powered variant with four Pratt & Whitney JT3D-11 turbofans were also under development. Both Pan American and Slick Airways (who had ordered six) cancelled their orders and the other variants did not evolve past design studies.
Lockheed decided to produce a commercial variant based on a de-militarised version of the C-130E Hercules. The prototype L-100 (N1130E) first flew on the 20 April 1964 when it carried out a 1 hour 25 minute flight. The type certificate was awarded on 16 February 1965. Twenty-one production aircraft were then built with the first delivery to Continental Air Services on 30 September 1965.
Northwest Territorial Airways L-100-30 at London Stansted Airport
Slow sales led to the development of two new, longer versions, the L-100-20 and L-100-30, both of which were larger and more economical than the original model. Deliveries totaled 114 aircraft, with production ending in 1992.
An updated civilian version of the Lockheed Martin C-130J-30 Super Hercules was under development, but the program was placed on hold indefinitely in 2000 to focus on military development and production.
Specifications (L-100-30)
General characteristics
Crew: 3-4: (two pilots, navigator, flight engineer/loadmaster)
Payload: 51,050 lb (23,150 kg)
Length: 112 ft 9 in (34.35 m)
Wingspan: 132 ft 7 in (40.4 m)
Height: 38 ft 3 in (11.66 m)
Wing area: 1,745 ft² (162.1 m²)
Empty weight: 77,740 lb (35,260 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (70,300 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Allison 501-D22A turboprops, 4,510 shp (3,360 kW) each
Maximum speed: 308 knots (354 mph (570 km/h)) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
Cruise speed: 292 kn (336 mph (541 km/h))
Range: 1,334 nmi (1,535 mi (2,470 km))
Ferry range: 4,830 nmi (2,360 mi (3,800 km))
Service ceiling: 23,000 ft (7,000 m)
Rate of climb: 1,830 ft/min (9.3 m/s)

Lockheed Constellation
The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") was a propeller-driven airliner powered by four 18-cylinder radial Wright R-3350 engines. It was built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, facility. A total of 856 aircraft were produced in numerous models, all distinguished by a triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. The Constellation was used as a civilian airliner and as a U.S. military air transport, seeing service in the Berlin Airlift. It was the presidential aircraft for U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Design and development
Initial design studies
Since 1937 Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur, a four-engine pressurized airliner. In 1939 Trans World Airlines, at the instigation of major stockholder Howard Hughes, requested a 40-passenger transcontinental airliner with 3,500 mi (5,630 km) range[1]—well beyond the capabilities of the Excalibur design. TWA's requirements led to the L-049 Constellation, designed by Lockheed engineers including Kelly Johnson and Hall Hibbard.[2] Willis Hawkins, another Lockheed engineer, maintains that the Excalibur program was purely a cover for the Constellation.
Development of the Constellation
The Constellation's wing design was close to that of the P-38 Lightning, differing mostly in scale.[4] The distinctive triple tail kept the aircraft's overall height low enough to fit in existing hangars,[3] while new features included hydraulically boosted controls and a thermal de-icing system used on wing and tail leading edges.[1] The aircraft had a top speed of over 340 mph (550 km/h), faster than that of a Japanese Zero fighter, a cruise speed of 300 mph (480 km/h), and a service ceiling of 24,000 ft (7,300 m).[5]
According to Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky, the intricate design may have been undertaken by Lockheed, but the concept, shape, capabilities, appearance and ethos of the Constellation were driven by Hughes' intercession during the design process.
Specifications (L-1049G Super Constellation)
General characteristics
Crew: 5 flight crew, varying cabin crew
Capacity: typically 62–95 passengers (109 in high-density configuration)
Length: 116 ft 2 in (35.42 m)
Wingspan: 126 ft 2 in (38.47 m)
Height: 24 ft 9 in (7.54 m)
Wing area: 1,654 ft2 (153.7 m2)
Empty weight: 79,700 lb (36,150 kg)
Useful load: 65,300 lb (29,620 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 137,500 lb (62,370 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350-DA3 Turbo Compound 18-cylinder supercharged radial engines, 3,250 hp (2,424 kW) each
Maximum speed: 377 mph (327 kn, 607 km/h)
Cruise speed: 340 mph (295 kn, 547 km/h) at 22,600 ft (6,890 m)
Stall speed: 100 mph (87 kn, 160 km/h)
Range: 5,400 mi (4,700 nmi, 8,700 km)
Service ceiling: 24,000 ft (7,620 m)
Rate of climb: 1,620 ft/min (8.23 m/s)
Wing loading: 87.7 lb/ft2 (428 kg/m2)
Power/mass: 0.094 hp/lb (155 W/kg)

Lockheed L-049 Constellation
The Lockheed L-049 Constellation was the first model of the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. It entered service as the C-69 military transport aircraft during World War II for the United States Army Air Forces and was the first civilian version after the war. When production ended in 1946 it was replaced by the improved L-649 and L-749 Constellation.
Specifications (L-049)
General characteristics
Crew: 4 Pilots and 2 to 4 Flight Attendants
Capacity: 60–81 Passengers
Length: 95 ft 3 in (29.032 m)
Wingspan: 123 ft (37.49 m)
Height: 23 ft 8 in (7.2136 m)
Wing area: 1,650 sq ft (153.29 m2)
Empty weight: 49,392 lbs (22,403.8 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 86,250 lbs (39,122.3 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350-745C18BA-1 radial, 2,200 hp (1,640 kW) each
Propellers: 4 propeller
Cruise speed: 313 mph (503.72 km/h)
Range: 3,995 mi w/maximum fuel load
2,290 mi w/maximum payload (6,429.3 km w/maximum fuel load
3,685.4 km w/maximum payload)
Service ceiling: 25,300 ft (7.711 km)

Lockheed L-649 Constellation
The Lockheed L-649 Constellation was the first real civilian version of the Lockheed Constellation line, as the Lockheed L-049 Constellation was a simple redesign from the military Lockheed C-69 Constellation. The L-649 was planned to be the new standard version of the Constellation, but the L-749 Constellation, a co-jointly produced improved deritative, was chosen over the L-649 by most airlines. Most of the few L-649 aircraft built were delivered and operated by Eastern Air Lines.
In late 1946, the model 49 was succeeded by the model 649 Constellation. Lockheed designated 149, 249, 349, 449 and 459 for new versions of the Constellation, but none of these variants were built.
The model 649 was essentially a "beefed-up" 49, with strengthening in the internal wing structure, landing gear and many other improvements. The 47-gallon integral wing oil tanks were replaced by 56-gallon oil tanks, which were installed in the engine nacelles. At 94,000 lbs (42,638 kg), the 649 represented a 7,500 lb (3,515 kg) increase in maximum takeoff weight and an 1,850 lb (839 kg) increase in payload over the model 49. The 649s cruise speed was boosted to 327 mph (526 kph), or 14 mph (23 kph) faster than the model 49.
The L-649 (NX101A, msn2518) made its first flight on Oct. 18th 1946. Lockheed had to face the competition of Douglas (DC-6) and Boeing (B-377 Stratocruiser). The heavier L-649 improved Connie's speed, range and payload thanks to the new R-3350-C18D-1 engines, each good for 2.500 horsepower. Improvements were also made on heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. Engine noise was reduced by better cabin insulation.
Specifications (L-649)
General characteristics
Crew: 5
Capacity: 60-81 Passengers
Length: 95 ft 3 in (29.032 m)
Wingspan: 123 ft (37.49 m)
Height: 23 ft 8 in (7.2136 m)
Wing area: 1,650 sq ft (153.29 sq m)
Empty weight: 55,000 lbs (24,947.6 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 94,000 lbs (42,637.7 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350-749C18BD radial engines, 2,500 hp (1,864,249.68 W) each
Propellers: 4 proplellor, 3 per engine
Cruise speed: 327 mph (526.26 km/h)
Range: 3,995 mi w/maximum fuel load
2,290 mi w/maximum payload (6,429.3 km w/maximum fuel load
3,685.4 km w/maximum payload)
Service ceiling: 24,442 ft (7,450 m)

Lockheed L-749
The Lockheed L-749 Constellation was the first aircraft in the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line able to cross the Atlantic Ocean non-stop. Although similar in appearance to the L-649 before it, the L-749 had a larger fuel capacity, strengthened landing gear, and, in some cases, weather radar.
Design and development
An L-749A of CAUSA.
In early 1947, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation unveiled the model L-749, a derivative of its L-649 Constellation. The L-749 was to have more fuel tanks, which was to increase the range of the aircraft by 1,000 miles. Due to the increased weight of the aircraft, the landing gear and tires had to be strengthened. Jet stacks were also introduced, increasing the speed of the aircraft by 15 mph (24.14 km/h). These new jet stacks increased the noise of the engine calling for more insulation. As with the L-649, ten different layouts of the internal cabin were possible. The airlines that were originally attracted to the L-649 changed their orders to the L-749. The L-749 was to become the standard version of the regular Constellation.[3][4][5]
The L-749 first flew on March 14, 1947,[1] and received certification that same month. The first L-749 was delivered to Air France on April 18, 1947. Pan American World Airways received its first L-749 in June. L-749 service began with Pan Am in June 1947 on their "Round The World" service. The L-749 also entered service with TWA and various other airlines, including KLM, Cubana de Aviación, Línea Aeropostal Venezolana, Avianca and Iberia. In March 1947, 1,200 jobs were lost at Lockheed, bringing production of the aircraft to a near stand-still. A large order from the United States Air Force for 10 L-749A aircraft designated the C-121 Constellation, saved the Constellation program from cancellation. The United States Navy followed in, ordering two L-749A aircraft designated the PO-1W Constellation (later WV-1). The first L-749A aircraft off the production lines were destined for the military.
The Aviadrome's C-121A Constellation in the colors of a KLM L-749.
Lockheed started producing the improved model L-749A in 1949. This new model incorporated a strengthened fuselage, even further strengthened landing gear and a Plycor floor. This increased the mass of the aircraft by over 4,000 pounds and increased the MTOW of the aircraft. A slightly redesigned engine cowling, and new Curtiss Electric propellers were also introduced. Besides production, Lockheed also offered a L-749 to L-749A production kit. The first civilian customer for the L-749A was South African Airways, but its largest customer was Trans World Airlines, which had 26 L-749A aircraft in its fleet. The last of TWA's aircraft would not be retired until 1967. A cargo version of the L-749A based on the military C-121A was offered, but no airlines showed any interest, therefore never leaving the drawing board. An L-749B turboprop version was even envisaged, but this too never left the drawing board, as no reliable engine was found. Production of the L-749A ended in 1951 to give way to its stretched successor, the L-1049 Super Constellation.
Specifications (L-749)
The cockpit of an L-749
Data from the American Museum of Aviation.[1]
General characteristics
Crew: 4 Pilots 2-4 Flight Attendants
Capacity: 60-81 Passengers
Length: 97 ft 4 in (29.667 m)
Wingspan: 123 ft (37.49 m)
Height: 22 ft 5 in (6.8326 m)
Wing area: 1,650 sq ft (153.29 sq m)
Empty weight: 56,590 lbs (25,668.8 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 107,000 lbs (48,534.4 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350-749C18BD-1 radial engines, 2,500 hp (1,864 kW) each
Propellers: 4 proplellor, 3 per engine
Cruise speed: 345 mph (555.22 km/h)
Range: 4,995 mi w/maximum fuel load
2,600 mi w/maximum payload (8,038.7 km w/maximum fuel load
4,184.3 km w/maximum payload)
Service ceiling: 24,100 ft (7.34568 km)

Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation
The Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation is an American aircraft, a member of the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. The L-1049 was Lockheed's response to the successful Douglas DC-6 airliner, first flying in 1950. The aircraft was also produced for both the United States Navy and Air Force as transport and AWACS aircraft. In 1951 the fuselage was extended by 18 ft 4.75 in and its passenger capacity increased to 69 upto 92 passengers. The first flight was on July 14th 1951 and 24 (or 34, depending on the source) were built. With auxiliary wing-tip fuel tanks, the new Super Constellation, as the enlarged L-1049 was known, could fly nonstop between New York and Los Angeles. But the new Turbo-Compound engines had not yet come available and the R-3350-956C18CA (2.700hp) were used; this made the Douglas DC-6B faster.
The L-1049C saw the use of the Turbo-Compound R-3350-872TCC18DA-1 engines, which could deliver a staggering 3.250 hp ! Now it outperformed the Douglas DC-6B again ! The L-1049C first flew on Feb.17th 1953.
But the engines kept giving problems and earned it the nickname: "the best 3-engined transport". This in itself wasn't unique: the 4-engined Douglas C-124 ("Old Shaky") was nicknamed the "Douglas tri-motor"....
Oct. 19th 1953 saw TWA's inaugural flight between Los Angeles and New York. The Super Connie could stay in the air for long periods of time and flight crews began to complain about the length of their duty days.
Customers for the L-1049C were eastern Airlines (16), Air France (10), KLM (9), Trans Canada A/l (5), Qantas (4), Pakistan Int'l (3) and Air India (2). A total of 49. But…. On July 27th 1949 the deHavilland Comet made its first flight in England. This marked the beginning of the end of the piston-engined airliners.
 The L-1049E featured some further structural improvements and saw orders by Qantas (9), KLM (4), Air India (3), Avianca (3), Iberia (3), Trans Canada A/l (3), LAV-Venzuela (2) and Compania Cubana (1); making a total of 28.
The Douglas DC-7 cruised a little faster than the L-1049C, but the improved L-1049G featured fueltanks on the wingtips. Thus the range was increased by 700 miles. The L-1049G featured some 100 design improvements over the L-1049E model, working to get things better and better. TWA named them "Super G's" and they could fly 4.140 miles (6.625 kms) with an 18.300 pound payload (with reduced payload and 8.500 lbs more fuel, range increased to 5.250 miles or 8.400 kms). The L-1049G received orders by Air France (14), Air India (5), Avianca (1), Compania Cubana (3), Eastern A/l (10), Howard Hughes (1), Iberia (2), KLM (6), LAV (2), Lufthansa (8), Northwest A/l (4), Qantas (2), TAP (3), Thai Airways (3), Trans Canada A/l (4), TWA (28) and Varig (6); making a total of 102 !
The model L-1049H was basically a convertible "Super G" : in a matter of a few hours the aircraft could be converted from a passenger plane to a cargo plane. The protoype made its first flight on Sep.20th 1956. The 'H model was ordered by Air Finance Corp.(3), California Eastern (5), Dollar (1), Flying Tiger Line (13), Gulf Eastern (5), KLM (3), National A/l (4), Pakistan Int'l (2), REAL (4), Resort A/l (2), Seaboard Western (5), Slick Airways (3), Trans Canada A/l (2), Transocean A/l (1), TWA (4) and Qantas (2).A total of 59 L-1049Hs were produced.
Specifications (L-1049C)
General characteristics
Crew: Four
Capacity: 47-106 Passengers
Length: 113 ft 7 in (34.62 m)
Wingspan: 123 ft (37.49 m)
Height: 24 ft 9 in (7.54 m)
Wing area: 1,650 sq ft (153.29 sq m)
Aspect ratio: 9.17
Empty weight: 69,000 lb (31,300 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 120,000 lb (54,431 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350 972-TC-18DA-1 radial, 3,250 hp (2,245 kW) each
Maximum speed: 330 mph (531 km/h)
Cruise speed: 304 mph (489 km/h)
Range: 5,150 mi (8,288 km)
Service ceiling: 25,700 ft (7,833 m)

Lockheed L-1649 Starliner
The Lockheed L-1649 Starliner was the last model of the Lockheed Constellation line. Powered by four Wright R-3350 TurboCompound engines, it was built at Lockheed's Burbank, California plant from 1956 to 1958.
Featuring a one-piece 150-foot wing, the Starliner was powered by four 3,400 horsepower Curtiss-Wright turbo-compound engines and remained in service until the introduction of jetpowered passenger planes. It featured a new, longer, narrower wing which provided for nearly double the fuel capacity of the first Connie, to 9.728 gallons (36.966 liters) and well over twice the range with maximum payload, to over 5,400 miles (8,690 km).
First flight was in Oct.10th 1956. It had a better range performance than the DC-7C. 19-hour non-stop eastbound flights from Los Angeles to London could be made over the polar route !!
The Starliner could reach any European capitol non-stop from any major airport in the US. The Starliner could fly New York to Paris in 3 hours less time, with the same payload, than the DC-7C. It was the fastest piston engined airliner at ranges over 4,000 miles (6,437 km) ever built.
The L-1649 was ordered by TWA (25), Air France (10), Lufthansa (to TWA, 4), LAI (4) and 1 prototype.
But 121 Douglas DC-7s were produced compared to 44 Starliners. The Constellations were considered to be heavy on the controls, more difficult to fly than the Douglas airliners because they were larger, heavier aircraft. The DC-7C was also earlier available to airline companies, explaining in part why more were produced.
Specifications (L-1649A)
Data from the SAA Museum Society website[18] and Lockheed Constellation:From Excalibur to Starliner.[19]
General characteristics
Crew: 5
Capacity: 99 Passengers
Length: 116.2 ft (35.1 m)
Wingspan: 150 ft (45.72 m)
Height: 24.75 ft (7.54 m)
Empty weight: 91,645 lb (45,569 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 156,104 lb (70,800 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350 988 TC18-EA-2 radial, 3,400 hp (2,535 kW) each
Propellers: Hamilton Standard Hydromatic 43H60 hollow or solid Dural Blade 3 bladed propellor
Propeller diameter: 19 ft (5.79 m)
Maximum speed: 377 mph (607 km/h)
Cruise speed: 290 mph (467 km/h)
Range: 4,940-6,180 mi (7,950-9,945 km)
Service ceiling: 23,700 ft (7,225 m)
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 (pronounced "L-ten-eleven") or TriStar, is a medium-to-long range, widebody trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, after the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The aircraft has a seating capacity of up to 400 persons and a range of over 4,000 nautical miles (7,410 km). Its trijet configuration places one Rolls-Royce RB211 engine under each wing, with a third, center-mounted RB211 engine with an S-duct air inlet embedded in the tail and the upper fuselage. The aircraft has an autoland capability, an automated descent control system, and available lower deck galley and lounge facilities.
L-1011-1 - Three 187kN (42,000lb) Rolls-Royce RB211-22B turbofans. 
L-1011-200 - Three 213.5kN (48,000lb) RB211-524s or 222.4kN (50,000lb) -524B or B4s.
L-1011-1 - Max cruising speed 973km/h (526kt), economical cruising speed 890km/h (463kt). Max range 5760km (3110nm). 
L-1011-200 - Speeds same. Range with max pax payload 6820km (3680nm), range with max fuel 9111km (4918nm).
L-1011-1 - Operating empty 109,045kg (240,400lb), max takeoff 195,045kg (430,000lb). 
L-1011-200 - Operating empty 112,670kg (248,000lb), max takeoff 211,375kg (466,000lb).
Wing span 47.34m (155ft 4in), length 54.17m (177ft 8in), height 16.87m (55ft 4in). Wing area 320.0m2 (3456.0sq ft).
Flightcrew of three. Max seating for 400 in an all economy configuration at 10 abreast and 76cm (30in) pitch. Typical two class seating for 256, with six abreast premium class seating and nine abreast in economy. Underfloor holds can accommodate 16 standard LD3 containers.
Total TriStar production of 250, of which 163 model 1, 13 model 100, 24 model 200, and 50 model 500 (the latter described separately).

Lockheed L-1011 TriStar 500 Long-range widebody airliner
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as the L-1011 (pronounced "L-ten-eleven") or TriStar, is a medium-to-long range, widebody trijet airliner. It was the third widebody airliner to enter commercial operations, after the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The aircraft has a seating capacity of up to 400 persons and a range of over 4,000 nautical miles (7,410 km). Its trijet configuration places one Rolls-Royce RB211 engine under each wing, with a third, center-mounted RB211 engine with an S-duct air inlet embedded in the tail and the upper fuselage. The aircraft has an autoland capability, an automated descent control system, and available lower deck galley and lounge facilities.
Three 222.4kN (50,000lb) Rolls-Royce RB211-524B or -525B4 turbofans.
Max cruising speed 960km/h (518kt), economical cruising speed 894km/h (483kt). Range with max pax payload 9905km (5345nm), range with max fuel 11,260km (6100nm).
Operating empty 111,310kg (245,500lb), max takeoff 231,330kg (510,000lb).
Wing span 50.09m (164ft 4in), length 50.05m (164ft 3in), height 16.87m (55ft 4in). Wing area 329.0m2 (3540.0sq ft).
Flightcrew of three. Max seating for 330 in a single class 10 abreast layout at 76cm (30in) pitch. Typical two class seating for 24 premium class at six abreast and 222 economy at nine abreast. Underfloor cargo holds can accommodate 19 standard LD3 freight containers.
50 built when production ceased in 1983.

Lockheed L-188 Electra
The Lockheed L-188 Electra is an American turboprop airliner built by Lockheed. First flying in 1957, it was the first large turboprop airliner produced in the United States. Initial sales were good, but after two fatal crashes which prompted an expensive modification program to fix a design defect, no further orders were placed. The type was soon replaced by turbojet airliners, and many were modified as freighters and the type continues to operate in various roles into the 21st century.[1][2] The airframe was also used as the basis for the Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft.
The Model 188 Electra is a low-wing cantilever monoplane powered by four wing-mounted Allison 501-D13 turboprops. It has a retractable tricycle landing gear and a conventional empennage. It has a cockpit crew of three and can carry 66 to 80 passengers in a mixed-class arrangement, although 98 could be carried in a high-density configuration. The first variant was the Model 188A which was followed by the longer-range Model 188C with increased fuel load and a higher take-off weight.
Specifications (Model 188A)
Data from Lockheed Aircraft since 1913[41]
General characteristics
Crew: Five (3 flight deck)
Capacity: 98 passengers
Length: 104 ft 6 in (31.85 m)
Wingspan: 99 ft 0 in (30.18 m)
Height: 32 ft 10 in (10.00 m)
Wing area: 1,300 sq ft (120.8 m²)
Empty weight: 57,400 lb (26,036 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 113,000 lb (51,256 kg)
Powerplant: 4 × Allison 501-D13 turboprop engines, 3,750 eshp (2,800 kW) each
Maximum speed: 390 knots (448 mph, 721 km/h) at 12,000 ft (3,660 m)
Cruise speed: 324 knots (373 mph, 600 km/h)
Range: 1,913 nmi (2,200 mi, 3,540 km) with maximum payload, 2,409 nmi, 2,770 mi, 4,455 km with 17,500 lb (7,938 kg) payload
Service ceiling: 32,000 ft (9,753 m)
Rate of climb: 1,970 ft/min (10 m/s)
L-188C - Four 2800kW (3750shp) Allison 501-D13 turboprops driving four blade constant speed propellers.
L-188C - Max cruising speed 652km/h (352kt), economical cruising speed 602km/h (325kt). Service ceiling 27,000ft. Range with max payload 3450km (1910nm), with max fuel 4023km (2180nm).
L-188C - Operating empty 27,895kg (61,500lb), max takeoff 52,664kg (116,000lb).
Wing span 30.18m (99ft 0in), length 31.81m (104ft 6in), height 10.01m (32ft 10in). Wing area 120.8m2 (1300sq ft).
Flightcrew of three. Single class seating for up to 104 passengers. Most aircraft now configured as freighters, max payload weight is approximately 12 tonnes (26,000lb).
170 Electras built, including 55 L-188Cs. Approx 40 in commercial service in late 2002, two used as corporate transports.

Luscombe Model 8 Silvaire Two-seat light aircraft
The Luscombe 8 is a series of high wing, side-by-side seating, conventional geared monoplanes designed in 1937 and built by Luscombe Aircraft.
8A - One 50kW (65hp) Continental A65 flat four piston engine driving a two blade fixed pitch propeller. 8F Special - One 65kW (90hp) Continental C90 flat four.
8A - Max speed 185km/h (100kt), cruising speed at 75% power 165km/h (90kt). Initial rate of climb 900ft/min. Service ceiling 15,000ft. Range 595km (320nm). 8F - Max speed 206km/h (111kt), max cruising speed 193km/h (104kt). Initial rate of climb 900ft/min. Range 804km (435nm).
8A - Empty 302kg (665lb), max takeoff 545kg (1200lb). 8F Special - Empty 395kg (870lb), max takeoff 635kg (1400lb).
8A & 8F Special - Wing span 10.68m (35ft 0in), length 6.10m (20ft 0in), height 1.78m (5ft 10in). Wing area 13.0m2 (140.0sq ft).
Seating for two side by side
Some 5970 Model 8s were built between 1938 and 1961, including 5840 by Luscombe, 50 by Temco, and 80 by Silvaire.

Specifications (Silvaire 8-F)
1946 Luscombe Silvaire 8F
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1961–62[4]
General characteristics
Crew: 1
Capacity: 1 passenger
Length: 20 ft 0 in (6.10 m)
Wingspan: 35 ft 0 in (10.67 m)
Height: 6 ft 3 in (1.91 m)
Wing area: 140 sq ft (13 m2)
Empty weight: 870 lb (395 kg)
Gross weight: 1,400 lb (635 kg)
Fuel capacity: 25 US Gallons (95 L)
Powerplant: 1 × Continental C90 air-cooled flat four, 90 hp (67 kW)
Propellers: 2-bladed metal fixed pitch, 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m) diameter
Maximum speed: 128 mph (206 km/h; 111 kn)
Cruise speed: 120 mph (104 kn; 193 km/h)
Stall speed: 40 mph (35 kn; 64 km/h) (flaps down)
Range: 500 mi (434 nmi; 805 km)
Service ceiling: 17,000 ft (5,182 m)
Rate of climb: 900 ft/min (4.6 m/s)

Luscombe Spartan Four-seat light aircraft
The Spartan is a modern tricycle reincarnation of the late 1940s Luscombe 11A Sedan.
The four seat taildragger Sedan was based on the popular Silvaire (over 6000 built) and first flew on September 11 1946. Production ceased in 1949 by when 198 had been built. In the mid 1950s aeronautical engineer Alfred Ney purchased a damaged 11A and through until 1988 developed a number of changes for the aircraft which aided eventual development of the 11E. Ney's improvements included tricycle undercarriage, improvements to the handling characteristics and a more spacious cabin.
In 1992 Land Air Sales and Leasing Corporation purchased the 11's type certificate and then transferred it to the newly established Luscombe Aircraft Corporation which has set about re-engineering the 11 for its return to production as the 185-11E Spartan.
Las Vegas based Luscombe Aircraft Corporation converted a Sedan (N1674B) to act as a proof of concept aircraft while the first new build 185-11E prototype first flew on June 19 1998. Certification for the basic aircraft could be awarded as early as April 1999 with first deliveries (from the new factory at Altus, Oklahoma) following soon after.
The Spartan's most important changes compared with the Sedan are tricycle undercarriage and a six cylinder Teledyne Continental IO360 (derated from 157kW/210hp to 138kW/185hp). Other changes include a revised cowl shape for the new engine, a reprofiled windscreen, two overhead windows, modern avionics, soundproofing, inertia reel shoulder harnesses and dual vacuum pumps. Two optional avionics packages are offered.
A family of Spartan models is envisaged, including a 185 with a constant speed prop, the higher performance 157kW (210hp) IO-360 powered Spartan 210 and a turbocharged variant.
The Luscombe 8 Silvaire was a highly successful two seat high wing light aircraft built in the years surrounding World War 2. Today it remains popular as a classic aircraft.
Prior to introducing the Silvaire into production in 1937 Luscombe had built a small number of two seat high wing light aircraft, the most popular of which was the Phantom, which was powered by a 108kW (145hp) Warner Super Scarab radial engine. The initial Model 8A Silvaire was similar to the Phantom in configuration but differed in that it was powered by a 50kW (65hp) Continental A-65 engine. A more up market model was also built from 1939, featuring a higher level of standard equipment and improved cabin trim. The 8B was similar to the 8A other than it was powered by a 50kW (60hp) Lycoming.
In 1941 Luscombe released the 8C which featured a 55kW (75hp) Continental engine, and the 8D, which differed in having wingtip fuel tanks. Over 1200 Model 8s were built through to early 1942 when production ceased due to the United States' entry into WW2.
Shortly after the end of the war in late 1945 Luscombe resumed Silvaire production to meet the booming demand experienced by all US light aircraft manufacturers as returned military pilots wanted to continue flying in civilian life. From 1946 all Luscombes featured a new metal wing with a single strut. The first Silvaire to feature the new wing was the 8E, which was powered by a 65kW (85hp) Continental C8512 engine.
The final Silvaire production model was the 8F, which featured a 65kW (90hp) Continental C90. The 8A Sky Pal meanwhile was a lower powered variant of the 8F with a Continental C65.
Financial difficulties forced Luscombe to cease trading in 1949. US company Temco took over production and built a small number before it too ceased production in 1950. Finally, some Silvaires were built in Colorado between 1955 and 1960.
In 1998 a new plan emerged to re-introduce the 8F to production. Maryland based Renaissance Aircraft plans to re-certificate an improved 8F (powered by either a Lycoming O-320 or 110kW/145hp Walter HP) while production aircraft would be built by the Czech Aircraft Works. Renaissance estimates a unit price of $US50-70,000.
185 - One 138kW (185hp) Teledyne Continental IO360-ES4 flat six piston engine driving a two blade fixed pitch propeller. 210 - One 156kW (210hp) IO-360-ES driving a two blade constant speed propeller.
185 - Normal cruising speed 209km/h (113kt). Initial rate of climb 950ft/min. Service ceiling 18,000ft. Range 852km (460nm). 210 - Normal cruising speed 225km/h (122kt). Initial rate of climb 1050ft/min. Range 1448km (782nm).
185 - Empty 612kg (1350lb), max takeoff 1035kg (2280lb). 210 - Empty 658kg (1450lb), max takeoff 1035kg (2280lb).
Wing span 11.73m (38ft 6in), length 7.24m (23ft 9in), height 2.69m (8ft 10in). Wing area 15.5m2 (167.0sq ft).

Standard seating for four.

Approximately 300 ordered by late 1998. Certification and first deliveries planned for mid 1999. Altus factory could build up to 500 Spartans a year. 185 VFR base price at late 1998 $US138,500

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