Sunday 27 April 2014

Hawker Siddeley Trident-1/1E/2C/3B Short / Medium Range Airliner


The Trident, model DH121 or HS121, was a short/medium-range airliner designed by de Havilland in the 1950s, and built by the Hawker-Siddeley Group in the 1960s when de Havilland was merged, along with several other British aviation firms. Designed specifically to a British European Airways requirement, it had limited appeal to other airlines and sold only in small numbers. Nevertheless it was an important airliner in Europe but high operational costs doomed it to a short lifespan. British Airways chose to upgrade their fleet with the Boeing 737, and the Trident left service in the 1980s.

In July 1956 BEA offered a contract for a new medium-haul aircraft to replace their Vickers Viscount on their longer European routes with a jet-powered aircraft. The new aircraft would work beside a smaller design for shorter ranges, which would eventually emerge as the BAC 1-11. Several designs were returned for this longer range role, including the Bristol 200, the Avro 740, and de Havilland's Airco DH.121. The DH.121 was selected as the winner in 1958.

The DH.121 was the first "tri-jet" design, a configuration the designers felt offered the ideal trade-off between cruise economy and takeoff safety in case of an engine failure. The plane looked, perhaps unsurprisingly, like a smaller Comet with three engines, including a tail design similar to the Comet, as opposed to the T-tail it would later use. With the engines clustered at the rear as in the Sud Caravelle, the wing was left free from engine mounts and was designed with high-speed cruise in mind, with a speed of over 600 mph being the goal. The DH121 was to be powered by 13,790 lbf (61.34 kN) Rolls-Royce Medway engines, have a gross weight of 150,000 lb (63,000 kg), a range of 2,070 mi (3,330 km), and seat 111 in a two-class layout.

Hawker-Siddeley Trident 1C, built 1962 and destroyed in a fire at London (Heathrow) Airport in 1975Hawker-Siddeley, which had formed by this point, started looking for additional customers for the Trident, and entered discussions with American Airlines in 1960. They demanded longer range, somewhat ironic as the original DH.121 design would have filled their requirements almost perfectly. Nevertheless they started design work on a new Trident 1A, powered with up rated Spey 510s of 10,700 lbf (47.6 kN) thrust, and a larger wing with more fuel, raising gross weight to 120,000 lb (54,000 kg) and range to 1,800 mi (2900 km). American Airlines eventually declined the aircraft in favour of the Boeing 727, an aircraft that filled the original DH.121 specifications almost exactly.

Some of these changes were nevertheless added into the original prototype, and it was eventually renamed the Trident 1C. The main difference was a larger fuel tank in the centre section of the wing, raising weights to 115,00 lb (52,000 kg) and range to 1,400 mi (2,250 km). The first of the Trident 1, G-ARPA, made its first flight on January 9, 1962, and entered service on April 1, 1964. By 1965 there were 15 Tridents in the fleet and by March 1966 this had risen to 21.

Hawker-Siddeley then proposed an improved 1C as the Trident 1E. This would use 11,400 lbf (50.7 kN) Spey 511's, have a gross weight of 128,000 lb (58,000 kg), an increased wing area by extending the chord, and the same fuselage but with up to 140 seats in a six-abreast configuration. This specification took the 1C closer to the larger concept of the original DH.121, but powered with 7,000 lbf (31 kN) less thrust. The wing, designed for high-speed, gave limited lift at lower speeds, and combined with the low power the takeoffs tended to be very long — it gained the nickname the "ground gripper" for the way it stuck to the runway, and it was also joked that Tridents only became airborne due to the curvature of the Earth. There were only a few sales of the new design: three each for Kuwait Airways and Iraqi Airways, four for PIA (later sold to CAAC), two each for Channel Airways and Northeast Airlines, and one for Air Ceylon.

By this point the Trident was becoming the backbone of the BEA fleet, and now that it was in widespread service BEA wanted an even larger design. Hawker-Siddeley offered two new designs in 1965, a larger 158-seat two-engine aircraft otherwise similar to the Trident known as the HS.132, and the 185-seat HS.134 which moved the engines under the wings and led to a modern-looking design very similar to the Boeing 757. Both were to be powered by a new high-bypass engine currently under development, the RB.178. BEA instead decided to purchase 727s and 737s to fill the role of both the 1-11 and Trident, but this plan was later vetoed by the government (the owners of BEA).

The boost engine is visible in the image but is not being used on this takeoff. An interesting feature of the Trident was its use in the development of a completely automatic blind landing system. This allowed the plane to land itself in conditions that would cause other planes to have to divert to alternate airports, thereby improving its on-time ratings. Although it was not known at the time, the somewhat less accurate flares led to the aircraft making rather hard landings, which led to premature fatigue in the spars of many aircraft. When the problem was discovered in the 1970s, many operators simply removed the affected aircraft from service rather than pay for the expensive work to fix the problems.

In total only 117 Tridents were produced. The great irony is that the 727, built to the original Trident specification, sold over 1,700 airframes.

The Trident has a very distinctive offset front landing gear. The reason it was designed this way is if the gear is retracted sideways it occupied significantly less cargo hold space.

The Trident was the first commercial aircraft to be fitted with a Flight Data Recorder.

The Trident performed the first instrument landing using ILS, pioneering the use of flights in low visibility. Good for dealing with fog in the UK.

In 1972, a Trident 1, G-ARPI crashed on takeoff from Heathrow Airport, killing all on board after hitting the ground at nearby Staines. At the time this was the worst air crash to have occurred on British soil. See Staines air disaster.

On March 14, 1979, a Trident 2E crashed into a factory near Beijing, killing at least 200. According to another source, this crash was caused by an unqualified pilot who stole and flew the plane. That source mentions total fatalities of all 12 crew, 32 ground, and no passengers.

Trident 1C, 24 built 
Trident 1E, 15 built 
Trident 2E, 50 built 
Trident 3B, 28 built 

For Trident 2E:

Length: 35 m 
Span: 28.9 m 
Height: 8.3 m 
Max range: 2,400 mi (3,860 km) 
Max takeoff weight: 143,500 lb (65,000 kg) 
Engines: 3x Rolls-Royce RB.163-25 Spey 512, 11,930 lbf (53.1 kN) thrust 
Accommodations: 3 crew + 149 passengers 

For Trident 3B:

Length: 40 m 
Span: 28.9 m 
Height: 8.6 m 
Max cruise speed: 573 mph (936 km/h) 
Max range: 1,800 miles (3060 km) 
Empty weight: 83,104 lb (37,695 kg) 
Max takeoff weight: 155,000 lb (70,300 kg) 
Engines: 3× Rolls-Royce RB.163-25 Spey 512, 11,930 lbf (53.1 kN) thrust + 1× Rolls-Royce RB.162-86, 5,250 lbf (23.4 kN) thrust 
Accommodations: 3 crew +


Surbhi Maheshwari [MBA Fin / Mktg ] 
Manager Finance
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Thursday 10 April 2014

Britten-Norman BN-2A Mk III Trislander Commuter Airliner

The Britten-Norman Trislander (more formally designated the BN-2A Mk III Trislander) is an 18-seat three-engined piston-powered civilian utility aircraft 
produced in the 1970s and early 1980s by Britten-Norman of Britain. 
The aircraft were made on the Isle of Wight. They were also produced in Romania, and delivered via Belgium to Britain for their certification.

The Trislander is a development of the BN2A Islander and has exceptional low speed handling characteristics, extended endurance, increased payload, low noise 
signature and economical operating costs. Capable of taking off from a 450 metre long landing strip, the Trislander can readily operate from unprepared surfaces.
Britten-Norman currently offers factory refurbished pre-owned Trislanders and the company is also considering options on future new build aircraft. 


Surbhi Maheshwari [MBA Fin / Mktg ] 
Manager Finance

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Lancair LC - 40 Columbia 300 / 350 / 400 High Performance Four Seat Light Aircraft

Country of origin  : 
United States of America

Type   :

High performance Four Seat Light Aircraft

History  :

Lancair's LC-40-550FG Columbia 300, 350, and 400 are high performance, composite construction factory built aircraft from a company famous for its high performance kit aircraft.
While the Columbia 300 is Lancair's first production aircraft, the Redmond, Oregon based Lancair was established in 1984 by Lance Neibauer, and since that time has built more than 1500 high performance two and four seat aircraft kits, including the Lancair 235, Lancair 320 and Lancair 360 two seaters and the Lancair IV, Lancair ES and Super ES and Tigress four seaters.
Lancair announced it was developing a high performance four seater intended for production, designated the LC-40, in 1996. An aerodynamic prototype of the design began test flying in July 1996 while the first certification prototype first flew in early 1997. The type's first public appearance was at the 1997 Oshkosh Airshow as the LC-40 Columbia 300. Certification was awarded on October 1 1998. Deliveries of production aircraft (built at a new factory at Redmond's Bend Municipal Airport) began in February 2000.
In common with Lancair's kitplanes, the Columbia 300 features composite construction allowing a smooth, low drag external finish. Power is from a six cylinder 225kW (300hp) Continental IO-550. The 300 features a 402 litre (106US gal/82Imp gal) fuel capacity in two tanks, advanced IFR avionics and fixed undercarriage.
Lancair announced the even quicker turbocharged Columbia 400 in early 2000. The 400 is based on the 300 but features a twin turbocharged, twin intercooled 231kW (310hp) Teledyne Continental TSIO-550-G, giving a cruising speed of 426km/h (230kt) at 18,000ft. First flight was in June 2000. The Columbia 400 will take the mantle of the world's fastest production fixed undercarriage light aircraft from the Columbia 300.
The 400 will also introduce Lancair's HITS (Highway in the Sky) advanced IFR avionics platform, designed with AvroTec (displays), Avidyne (software) and Seagull, under sponsorship of NASA's AGATE program, for improved IFR situational awareness. HITS features a primary flight display that presents flight data in an integrated format, and a multifunction display for moving map displays, StormScope, radar, up-linked weather and traffic avoidance programs. Another advanced feature to be introduced with the 400 will be a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Controls) engine management system, allowing single lever control for power, mixture and the propeller. FADEC uses sophisticated microcomputers to monitor and adjust the operation of each engine cylinder several times each second, which has many benefits in economy, pilot comfort, and performance. HITS and FADEC will be offered as options on the 300 in 2001.
On April 5, 2002 Lancair announced a new model, the Columbia 350. This is an all-electric version of the normally aspirated Columbia 300. The 350 features a dual bus, dual battery electrical system that eliminates the dual vacuum pumps found in the Columbia 300. FADEC is available as an option. The first public appearance was made at Lakeland's Sun 'n Fun display in April 2002. After certification, first deliveries are planned for late 2002.
NASA is using a Columbia 300, designated Columbia 300X, as a test aircraft at Langley for in-cockpit displays like 4D "pathway guidance" and real-time traffic and weather displays to develop technologies for separation of aircraft without Air Traffic Control.

300 - One 225kW (300hp) Teledyne Continental IO-550-N2B flat six piston engine driving a three blade constant speed Hartzell prop.
400 - One turbocharged 236kW (310hp) TSIO-550-G

300 - Normal cruising speed at 75% power 353km/h (191kt). Initial rate of climb 1340ft/min. Service ceiling 18,000ft. Range 2038km (1100nm).
400 - Cruising speed approx 426km/h (230kt) at 18,000ft.

300 - Empty 998kg (2200lb), max takeoff 1542kg (3400lb).

300 - Wing span 11.00m (36ft 1in), length 7.67m (25ft 2in), height 2.74m (9ft 0in). Wing area 13.1m2 (141.2sq ft).

Standard seating for four.

300 - More than 300 on order by late 2000. First delivery inFebruary 2000.
400 - First deliveries planned for late 2001. Lancair aims to build one aircraft a day from late 2001.

Wednesday 9 April 2014

Cessna 560 Citation V, Ultra & Ultra Encore Small to Midsize Corporate Jet

Country of origin  

United States of America


Small to Midsize Corporate Jet 

The Citation V, Citation Ultra and Ultra Encore are the largest straight wing members of Cessna's highly successful Citation family.
Cessna publicly announced it was developing a stretched development of the Citation II at the annual NBAA convention in New Orleans in 1987. Earlier in August that year the first engineering prototype Model 560 Citation V had successfully completed the type's maiden flight. A preproduction prototype flew in early 1986, while US certification was granted on December 9 1988. Deliveries began the following April.
The Citation V was based on the Citation II/SP, but differences over the smaller jet include more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D5A turbofans and a slight fuselage stretch, allowing seating in a standard configuration for eight passengers. The Citation V proved quite popular, with 262 built through to mid 1994 before production switched to the modernised Ultra.
Cessna announced development of the upgraded Citation V Ultra in September 1993. FAA certification was granted in June 1994, allowing for deliveries of production aircraft to commence soon after. Compared with the Citation V, the Ultra features more powerful 13.6kN (3045lb) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D5D engines and Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS avionics with three CRT displays (two primary flight displays and one multifunction display).
The Citation Ultra Encore is a new development announced at the 1998 NBAA convention. Compared with the Ultra the Encore introduces new Pratt & Whitney Canada PW535 engines, plus trailing link main undercarriage, more fuel payload, updated interior and improved systems. The Ultra's Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS avionics suite is retained.


V - Two 12.9kN (2900lb) Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D5A turbofans. Ultra - Two 13.6kN (3045lb) JT15D5Ds. Ultra Encore - Two 14.9kN (3360lb) P&WC PW535As.

V - Cruising speed 790km/h (427kt). Initial rate of climb 3650ft/min. Range with six passengers, two crew and reserves 3558km (1920nm). Ultra - Max cruising speed 796km/h (430kt). Initial rate of climb 4100ft/min. Certificated ceiling 45,000ft. Range with five passengers 3630km (1960nm). Ultra Encore - Max cruising speed at mid cruise weight 798km/h (431kt). Certificated ceiling 45,000ft. Max range with IFR reserves 3150km (1700nm).

V - Empty equipped 4004kg (8828lb), max takeoff 7212kg (15,900lb). Ultra - Empty 4196kg (9250lb), operating empty 4377kg (9650lb), max takeoff 7393kg (16,300lb). Ultra Encore - Empty approx 4526kg (9977lb), max takeoff 7544kg (16,630lb).

V & Ultra - Wing span 15.91m (52ft 3in), length 14.90m (48ft 11in), height 4.57m (15ft 0in). Wing area 31.8m2 (342.6sq ft). Ultra Encore - Same except height 4.63m (15ft 1in). Wing Span 16.49m (54 ft 1in), Wing Area 322 sq ft.

V - Typical seating for eight passengers. Ultra/Ultra Encore - Standard seating arrangements for seven or eight passengers.


262 Citation Vs built through to mid 1994. Approx 340 Ultras built. Ultra Encore deliveries due to begin second quarter 2000.

Surbhi Maheshwari [MBA Fin / Mktg ] 
Manager Finance
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