Sunday, 24 February 2013

Piper PA-31 Navajo / Pressurized Navajo Six/eight-seat corporate transport and commuter airliner Ans.

The Piper PA-31 Navajo is a family of cabin-class, twin-engine aircraft designed and built by Piper Aircraft for the general aviation market, most using Lycoming engines. It was also licence-built in a number of Latin American countries.Targeted at small-scale cargo and feeder liner operations and the corporate market, the aircraft was a success. It continues to prove a popular choice, but due to greatly decreased demand across the general aviation sector in the 1980s, production of the PA-31 ceased in 1984.
At the request of company founder William T. Piper, Piper began development of a six- to eight-seat twin engine corporate and commuter transport aircraft in 1962 under the project name Inca.[2][6] The type, now designated the PA-31 and looking like a scaled-up Twin Comanche, was officially announced in late 1964 after its first flight on 30 September that year. It was a low-wing monoplane with a conventional tail, powered by two 310 hp (231 kW) Lycoming TIO-540-A turbocharged engines in so-called "tiger shark" cowlings, a feature shared with the Twin Comanche and also the PA-23 Aztec. As testing proceeded two cabin windows were added to each side of the fuselage and the engines moved further forward. The PA-31, now named "Navajo" after a Native American tribe, was not certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) until 24 February 1966, and deliveries did not begin until the following year, after the type was re-certified in mid-1966 with an increase in maximum take off weight (MTOW) from 6,200 lb (2,812 kg) to 6,500 lb (2,948 kg).
Piper established its T1000 Airliner Division in May 1981 at its Lakeland, Florida factory. There were two aircraft in the T1000 series. The T1020, or more accurately the PA-31-350T1020 was a PA-31-350 Chieftain optimised for and marketed to the commuter airline market. It featured reduced fuel capacity compared to the standard Chieftain, with the 40 US gal (151 l) auxiliary fuel tanks in each wing of the Chieftain not fitted to the T1020. It also had reduced baggage capacity (600 lb (272 kg) maximum instead of the Chieftain's 700 lb (318 kg) maximum) and up to eleven seats. The first T1020 was delivered in December 1981. The second aircraft in the T1000 stable was the T1040 – the PA-31T3 model. The T1040 was a hybrid, featuring the main fuselage of the PA-31-350T1020 with the nose and tail of the PA-31T1 Cheyenne I. The wings were similar to the Cheyenne I's, but with reduced fuel capacity and baggage lockers in the engine nacelles similar to those of the Chieftain. An optional underbelly cargo pod was also available. The Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines were the same as those of the Cheyenne I. Deliveries of the T1040 began in July 1982. A T1050 variant with a fuselage stretch of 11 ft 6 in (3.51 m) and seating capacity of 17 was proposed as a factory conversion of existing aircraft, but did not proceed.

Specifications (PA-31 Navajo)

General characteristics:-

    Crew:                             1 or 2
    Capacity:                        5 to 7 passengers
    Length:                           32 ft 7½ in (9.94 m)
    Wingspan:                      40 ft 8 in (12.40 m)
    Height:                           13 ft 0 in (3.96 m)
    Wing area:                     229 sq. ft (21.3 m²)
    Empty weight:                3,930 lb (1,782 kg)
    Max. takeoff weight:      6,500 lb (2,948 kg)
    Powerplant:                   2 × Lycoming TIO-540-A air-cooled six-cylinder horizontally opposed                         piston engine, 310 hp (231 kW) each
    Propellers:                   Two or three blade, metal, fully feathering, Hartzell propeller

 Performance :-

     Never exceed speed:           236 knots (438 km/h (272 mph))
    Maximum speed:                 227 knots (420 km/h (260 mph)) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
    Cruise speed:                      207 knots (383 km/h (238 mph)) econ cruise at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
    Stall speed:                         63.5 knots (118 km/h (73 mph)) flaps down
    Range:                                1,011 nmi (1,875 km (1,165 mi))
    Service ceiling:                 26,300 ft (8,015 m)
    Rate of climb:                    1,445 ft/min (7.3 m/s)

8.Piper PA-31T Cheyenne Twin turboprop corporate transports :-
Aimed directly at Beech's successful King Air twin turboprop series, the PA-42 Cheyennes are larger developments of the earlier PA-31T Cheyennes (in turn themselves turboprop developments of the PA-31 Navajo).
The PA-42 Cheyenne III was announced in September 1977. The first production Cheyenne III flew for the first time on May 18 1979 and FAA certification was granted in early 1980. Compared with the Cheyenne II the PA-42 was about 1m (3ft) longer, was powered by 537kW (720shp) PT6A-41 turboshafts and introduced a T-tail, the most obvious external difference between the PA-31T and PA-42. Deliveries of production Cheyenne IIIs began on June 30 1980.
Development and improvement of the III led to the PA-42-720 Cheyenne IIIA, with PT6A-61 engines, a higher service ceiling and revised systems and interior.
The higher powered and significantly faster PA-42-1000 is basically similar to the PA-42-720 except for its far more powerful 745kW (1000hp) Garrett TPE331 turboprops driving four blade propellers. Piper's largest and fastest production aircraft to date, the PA-42-1000 was initially called the Cheyenne IV, before becoming known as the Cheyenne 400LS, and then simply the Cheyenne 400. First flown on February 23 1983, the Cheyenne 400 was delivered from late 1984. Production of the PA-42 ended in February 1993.

Powerplants  :-
PA-42-720 Cheyenne III - Two 535kW (720shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-41 turboprops driving three blade constant speed Hartzell propellers. 
PA-42-1000 Cheyenne 400LS - Two 1225kW (1645shp) derated to 745kW (1000shp) Garrett TPE331-14A/Bs driving four blade Hartzell props.

Performance :-
PA-42-720 - Max speed 537km/h (290kt), max cruising speed 461km/h (250kt), economical cruising speed 413km/h (223kt). Initial rate of climb 2235ft/min. Service ceiling 33,000ft. Range at max cruising speed 3100km (1675nm). 
PA-42-1000 - Max speed 650km/h (351kt), max cruising speed 594km/h (320kt), economical cruising speed 506km/h (273kt). Initial rate of climb 3242ft/min. Range at max cruising speed 3015km (1630nm), range at economical cruising speed 3500km (1890nm).

Weights :-
PA-42-720 - Empty 2900kg (6389lb), max ramp weight 5125kg (11,285lb). 
PA-42-1000 - Empty 3412kg (7522lb), max takeoff 5466kg (12,050lb).

Dimensions :- 
PA-42-720 - Wing span (over tip tanks) 14.53m (47ft 8in), length 13.23m (43ft 5in), height 4.50m (14ft 9in). Wing area 27.2m2 (293.0sq ft). 
PA-42-1000 - Same except for height 5.18m (17ft 0in).

Capacity :- 
One or two pilots on flightdeck, with main cabin seating for between six and nine passengers. Typical seating for six in main cabin in corporate configuration.

Production :- 
Total manufactured 192, including 149 III/IIIAs and 43 400s.

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