Monday, 2 December 2013

Arrow Model F Two Seat Light Aircraft

The Hawk Arrow series was originally designed as an updated version of the Hawk Classic, incorporating features requested over a period of years. The nose section is longer, more pointed, and angles downward (steeper) than what you find in the Hawk Classic. This allows for better forward visibility at low sun angles. The nose also has a flatter floor section. Since the nose was made longer, the area of the rudder and vertical stabilizer were increased in order to enjoy the same excellent yaw stability of the Hawk Classic. The tail boom was also reinforced to handle the loads of this larger tail assembly.

The Hawk Arrow Two Seat wing has the same semi symmetrical airfoil as the Hawk Sport, and streamlined extruded aluminum wing struts. Standard features of the Hawk Arrow also include curved overhead and curved windshield. This model is for those who like the more modern jet plane look, yet still want the excellent flying characteristics of the Hawk Classic. Primarily it?s a personal preference, some folks seem to like the smoother rounder lines of the Classic while others like the more modern jet plane look of the Arrow. Either way they all have the same excellent flying characteristics.

The Hawk Arrow Two Seat incorporates tandem seating rather than side by side. This allows a student to feel as if he is flying in a single place during his all important instructional phase because the instructor is out of sight and behind him. When it is time to solo, the student pilot experiences more confidence and less stress with this seating arrangement. He is not suddenly dealing with an empty seat next to him. With tandem seating, turns to the left or right are equally comfortable because you don\'t have to look across a seat to check behind you. In addition, since most ultralight aircraft are pushers, the tandem configuration allows for better inflow to the propeller, and much less drag. Center of gravity changes are also much less pronounced when flying solo vs. with a passenger. In a tandem set up, the front pilot balances the engine, and the passenger sits on the center of gravity, so it makes no difference if you have a passenger or not. The center of gravity changes very little. In a side by side arrangement, however, when the passenger exits the plane, the center of gravity makes a drastic shift to the rear, and must be compensated for in some way.

The CGS Hawk Arrow, introduced in 1989 is available as either a tail dragger or trike.
Its bolt/rivet together construction should take 200/400 hours to build.

Construction, uses aluminum tube covered in standard aircraft covering materials  Controls are standard stick and rudder with a center mounted stick and side mounted throttles.
The engine is mounted in a pusher configuration. Early models had the engine mounted inverted. Later models have an upright engine mount.

The CGS Hawk Arrow II can be powered by the Rotax 503, and 582, as well as the Hirth line of two stroke aircraft engines, and the HKS twin cylinder 60 HP four stroke engine.

The aircraft powerplant

The airplane engine and propeller, often referred to as the aircraft powerplant, work in combination to produce thrust. The powerplant propels the airplane and drives the various systems that support the operation of an airplane.

Reciprocating engines

Most small airplanes are designed with reciprocating engines. The name is derived from the back-and-forth, or reciprocating, movement of the pistons. It is this motion that produces the mechanical energy needed to accomplish work. Two common means of classifying reciprocating engines are:

by cylinder arrangement with respect to the crankshaft—radial, in-line, v-type or opposed, or
by the method of cooling—liquid or air-cooled.
Radial engines were widely used during World War II, and many are still in service today. With these engines, a row or rows of cylinders are arranged in a circular pattern around the crankcase. The main advantage of a radial engine is the favorable power-to-weight ratio.

In-line engines have a comparatively small frontal area, but their power-to-weight ratios are relatively low. In addition, the rearmost cylinders of an air-cooled, in-line engine receive very little cooling air, so these engines are normally limited to four or six cylinders.

V-type engines provide more horsepower than in-line engines and still retain a small frontal area. Further improvements in engine design led to the development of the horizontally-opposed engine.

Opposed-type engines are the most popular reciprocating engines used on small airplanes. These engines always have an even number of cylinders, since a cylinder on one side of the crankcase “opposes” a cylinder on the other side. The majority of these engines are air cooled and usually are mounted in a horizontal position when installed on fixed-wing airplanes. Opposed-type engines have high power-to-weight ratios because they have a comparatively small, lightweight crankcase. In addition, the compact cylinder arrangement reduces the engine´s frontal area and allows a streamlined installation that minimizes aerodynamic drag.

The main parts of a reciprocating engine include the cylinders, crankcase, and accessory housing. The intake/exhaust valves, spark plugs, and pistons are located in the cylinders. The crankshaft and connecting rods are located in the crankcase. The magnetos are normally located on the engine accessory housing.

The basic principle for reciprocating engines involves the conversion of chemical energy, in the form of fuel, into mechanical energy. This occurs within the cylinders of the engine through a process known as the four-stroke operating cycle. These strokes are called intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

Induction systems

The induction system brings in air from the outside, mixes it with fuel, and delivers the fuel/air mixture to the cylinder where combustion occurs. Outside air enters the induction system through an intake port on the front of the engine cowling. This port normally contains an air filter that inhibits the entry of dust and other foreign objects. Since the filter may occasionally become clogged, an alternate source of air must be available. Usually, the alternate air comes from inside the engine cowling, where it bypasses a clogged air filter. Some alternate air sources function automatically, while others operate manually.

Two types of induction systems are commonly used in small airplane engines:

the carburetor system, which mixes the fuel and air in the carburetor before this mixture enters the intake manifold, and
the fuel injection system, which mixes the fuel and air just before entry into each cylinder.
Carburetor systems

Carburetors are classified as either float-type or pressure-type. Pressure carburetors are usually not found on small airplanes. The basic difference between a pressure carburetor and a float-type is the pressure carburetor delivers fuel under pressure by a fuel pump.

In the operation of the float-type carburetor system, the outside air first flows through an air filter, usually located at an air intake in the front part of the engine cowling. This filtered air flows into the carburetor and through a venturi, a narrow throat in the carburetor.

When the air flows through the venturi, a low-pressure area is created, which forces the fuel to flow through a main fuel jet located at the throat. The fuel then flows into the airstream, where it is mixed with the flowing air.

Specifications Imperial

CGS Hawk Arrow specifications
Empty Weight:    420 lbs.
Gross Weight:    950 lbs.
Wing Span:    34 ft.
Wing Area:    159 sq. ft.
Engine:    503 Rotax
Cruise Speed:    55/75 m.p.h.
Stall Speed:    30 m.p.h.
VNE:    100 m.p.h.
Construction:    Aluminum Tube, Conventional Aircraft Covering



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