Sunday, 24 February 2013

Piper

Pipers










1.Piper PA-24 Comanche Four-seat high-performance light aircraft:-
Ans.
 The Piper PA-24 Comanche is a four-seat, low-wing, all-metal, light aircraft of monocoque construction with retractable landing gear that was first flown on 24 May 1956
 according to a Piper Aircraft Company press release. Together with the Twin Comanche, it made up the core of the Piper Aircraft line-up until 1972, when the production
 lines for both aircraft were wiped out in a flood.

Performance:-  
PA-24-250 - Max speed 306km/h (165kt), max cruising speed 291km/h (157kt). Initial rate of climb 1350ft/min. Service ceiling 20,000ft. Max range with optional fuel 
2665km (1440nm). 
PA-24-400 - Max speed 360km/h (194kt), max cruising speed 343km/h (185kt). Initial rate of climb 1600ft/min. Service ceiling 19,500ft. Range with standard fuel 2012km
 (1086nm), with optional fuel 2478km (1338nm). 
PA-24-260 Turbo C - Max speed 390km/h (210kt), max cruising speed 318km/h (172kt). Initial rate of climb 1320ft/min. Operating ceiling 25,000ft. Max range 2052km 
(1108nm), with optional fuel 2398km (1295nm).

Weights: 
PA-24-250 - Empty 767kg (1690lb), max takeoff 1315kg (2900lb). 
PA-24-400 - Empty 957kg (2110lb), max takeoff 1633kg (3600lb). 
PA-24-260 Turbo C - Empty 860kg (1894lb), max takeoff 1450kg (3200lb).

Dimensions:  
PA-24-250 - Wing span 10.97m (36ft 0in), length 7.59m (24ft 11in), height 2.29m (7ft 6in). Wing area 16.5m2 (178sq ft). 
PA-24-400 - Wing span 10.97m (36ft 0in), length 7.84m (25ft 8in), height 2.39m (7ft 10in). Wing area 16.5m2 (178sq ft). 
PA-24-260 Turbo C - Wing span 10.97m (36ft 0in), length 7.62m (25ft 0in), height 2.29m (7ft 6in). Wing area 16.5m2 (178sq ft).

Capacity:  
Standard seating for four, Comanche B and C could have optional fifth and sixth seats.

Production:
Total PA-24 production 4856, including 1143 180s, 2537 250s, 1028 260s and 260 Ts, and 148 400s.


2.Piper PA-25 Pawnee Agricultural aircraft:-

The PA-25 Pawnee was an agricultural aircraft produced by Piper Aircraft between 1959 and 1982. It remains a widely used aircraft in agricultural spraying and is also used as a tow plane, or tug, for launching gliders or for towing banners. On April 15, 1998, The New Piper Aircraft, Inc. officially sold the PA-25 series aircraft to Latino Americana de Aviación S.A in Argentina. The sale included all drawings, engineering data, parts inventory, tools, catalogs, and manuals. All support of any nature became the responsibility of the new owners. The USA type certificate for the PA-25 Pawnee is currently held by LAVIA ARGENTINA S.A. (LAVIASA).
Design and development
The PA-25 Pawnee was designed by Fred Weick  as a rugged, easy to maintain agricultural aircraft. The Pawnee is a single-engined low-wing monoplane constructed of steel tubing and covered with fabric. The emphasis of this design was on pilot safety with the fuselage structure designed to collapse progressively during a low speed crash, typically experienced during crop spraying operations.
Early models of the Pawnee had a single fuel tank located between the agricultural hopper and the engine. The NTSB recommended to Piper Aircraft that the early model PA-25's with a fiberglass fuel tank be retrofitted with a rubber fuel cell to minimize the chance of catastrophic failure and postcrash fire resulting from a crash. The later Pawnee D version featured twin fuel tanks mounted in the outer wing panels, further improving crashworthiness.
A useful design aspect was the ability to carry a mechanic on a jump seat fitted in the hopper to assist with operations at remote stations.

General characteristics
Crew: One
Capacity: 120 US gal (568 l) or 1,200 lb (545 kg) of chemicals
Length: 24 ft 9 in (7.55 m)
Wingspan: 36 ft 2 in (11.02 m)
Height: 7 ft 2 in (2.19 m)
Wing area: 183 ft² (17.0 m²)
Empty: 1,457 lb (662 kg)
Loaded: 2,900 lb (1,317 kg)
Maximum takeoff: 2,900 lb (1,317 kg)

Powerplant: 1 x Lycoming O-540-B2B5, 235 hp (175 kW)

Performance:-
Maximum speed: 102 kts (188 km/h)
Range: 300 miles (500 km)
Service ceiling: 13,000 ft (3,963 m)
Rate of climb: 630 ft/min (192 m/min)(at MTOW)
Wing loading: 15.9 lb/ft² (77.5 kg/m²)
Power/Mass: 0.0810 hp/lb (0.133 kW/kg)

3.Piper PA-28 Cherokee Series Two- and four-seat light aircraft :-
Ans.
The Piper PA-32 Cherokee Six is a series of single engine fixed landing gear light aircraft manufactured in the United States by Piper Aircraft between 1965 and 2007.The PA-32 series began life in 1965 as the 260 horsepower (190 kW) PA32-260 Cherokee Six, a significantly modified six (or seven) seat development of the PA-28 Cherokee.
The Cherokee Six and its successors feature a baggage compartment in the nose between the cockpit and the engine compartment as well as a large double door in the back for easy loading of passengers and cargo.

General characteristics :-
Crew: One

Capacity: five passengers (or six with optional seat)

Length: 27.7 ft in (8.4 m)
Wingspan: 32.8 ft in (10.0 m)
Height: 7.9 ft in (2.4 m)
Wing area: 174.5 ft2 (16.5 m2)
Wing profile: NACA 65-415
Empty weight: 1788 lb (811 kg)
Gross weight: 3400 lb (1542 kg)

Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming IO-540-K1A5, 300 hp (225 kW).

Performance :-
Maximum speed: 174 mph (280 km/h)
Cruise speed: 168 mph (272 km/h)
Range: 840 miles (1361 km)
Service ceiling: 16250 ft (4950 m)
Rate of climb: 1050 ft/min (5.3 m/s)

4.Piper PA-28R Cherokee Arrow Four-seat light aircraft :-
Ans.
The PA-28R originally began life as a retractable undercarriage variant of the PA-28 Cherokee.
The original PA-28R-180 Cherokee Arrow was a relatively simple adaptation of the existing PA-28-180 Cherokee D, but incorporated electro-hydraulically operated retractable undercarriage (complete with a self lowering system that safeguarded against the pilot failing to do so, automatically lowering when airspeed reached 170km/h/91kt and a certain engine manifold pressure), a fuel injected version of the PA-28-180's O-360, a constant speed propeller and an increased max takeoff weight.
Production switched later to the more powerful 150kW (200hp) IO-360-C1C powered PA-28R-200 Cherokee Arrow II. Changes included the same 12.7cm (5in) stretched fuselage introduced on the Cherokee Challenger and Cherokee Charger, with greater rear legroom and baggage capacity, plus larger horizontal tail and dorsal fin fillet.
The PA-28R-201 Arrow III first flew in September 1975, and was introduced from 1976. The major change (also introduced on the fixed undercarriage PA-28s at that time) was a new longer tapered span wing, while the maximum takeoff weight was increased. The turbocharged PA-28R-201T was also offered.
The PA-28RT-201 and -201T Arrow IV introduced a new all moving T-tail. Production of the Arrow IV ceased in 1982, and resumed again in 1989, but ceased once more in 1992. Instead Piper returned the conventional-tailed Arrow III back into production. Very small numbers were built in the early 1990s while Piper was under bankruptcy protection. Since the emergence of New Piper Inc in 1995 the Arrow III has been part of the expanded Piper line-up, although only small numbers have been built.

Powerplants  
PA-28R-180 - One 135kW (180hp) Lycoming IO-360-B1E fuel injected flat four piston engine driving a two blade constant speed Hartzell propeller.
PA-28R-201T - One 150kW (200hp) Continental TSIO-360-FB turbocharged and fuel injected flat six.

Performance  

PA-28R-180 - Max speed 274km/h (148kt),
 typical cruising speed 260km/h (140kt),
 long range cruising speed 230km/h (124kt). 
Initial rate of climb 875ft/min. 
Service ceiling 15,000ft. 
Range at economical cruising speed 1600km (865nm). 
PA-28R-201T - Max speed 330km/h (178kt), 
max cruising speed 320km/h (172kt), 
long range cruising speed 284km/h (153kt). 
Initial rate of climb 940ft/min. 
Range with reserves 1667km (900nm).

Weights  
PA-28R-180 - Empty 626kg (1380lb),
 max takeoff 1134kg (2500lb). 
PA-28R-201T - Empty 786kg (1732lb), 
max takeoff 1315kg (2900lb).

Dimensions  
PA-28R-180 - Wing span 9.14m (30ft 0in),
 length 7.38m (24ft 3in), height 2.44m (8ft 0in). 
Wing area 14.2m2 (160sq ft). 
PA-28R-201T - Wing span 10.80m (35ft 5in),
 length 8.33m (27ft 3in), 
height 2.52m (8ft 3in). 
Wing area 15.9m2 (170sq ft).

Capacity  
Typical seating for four.

Production  
Approximately 6000 PA-28Rs of all models built, including 81 PA-28R-180Bs, 1664 PA-28R-200s and -201s, and 1291 PA-28R-201Ts and PA-28RT-201Ts.

5.Piper PA-30/39 Twin Comanche Six-seat light twin :-
Ans.
As its name implies, the Twin Comanche is a twin engine development of the PA-24 Comanche. When in production, it was Piper's premier four/six place light twin, replacing the Apache 235 and positioned beneath the larger and more powerful Aztec.
The Twin Comanche was originally proposed as early as 1956, when the single engine Comanche was undergoing initial development, however the project was delayed while Piper worked on the Comanche and the Aztec twin. So it was not until 1962 that a Comanche was converted to a twin configuration with two 120kW (160hp) IO-320s (originally two 110kW (150hp) engines were planned), with first flight on November 7 1962. First flight of a production Twin Comanche was in May 1963, with first deliveries later that year.
The Twin Comanche differed little from its single engine brethren other than changes associated with its twin engine layout, and it quickly proved to be very popular. Improvements to the PA-30 resulted in the introduction of the Twin Comanche B in 1965, which featured a stretched fuselage allowing seating for up to six, as on the equivalent Comanche B single, while turbocharged engines and wingtip tanks were offered as options as the Turbo Twin Comanche B.
From 1970 the Twin Comanche C featured a slightly higher cruising speed and interior improvements, while the PA-39 Twin Comanche C/R was fitted with counter rotating engines.
Production of the Twin Comanche ceased in 1972 - by which time only the PA-39 was available - due to the flooding of Piper's Lock Haven factory.


Powerplants  
PA-30-160 - Two 120kW (160hp) 
Lycoming IO-320-B1A fuel injected flat four piston engines driving two blade constant speed Hartzell propellers. 
PA-39 - Two 120kW (160hp) counter rotating Lycoming L/IO-320-C1As.

Performance  

PA-30-160 - Max speed 330km/h (178kt), max cruising speed 312km/h (168kt), long range cruising speed 267km/h (144kt). Initial rate of climb 1460ft/min. Service ceiling 18,600ft. Max range with no reserves and standard fuel 1795km (970nm), or with tip tanks 2190km (1182nm). 
PA-39 Turbo - Max speed 376km/h (203kt), max cruising speed 357km/h (193kt), economical cruising speed 327km/h (177kt). Initial rate of climb 1460ft/min. Service ceiling 25,000ft. Range at max cruising speed 2373km (1282nm), range at economical cruising speed 2582km (1395nm)

Weights  
PA-30-160 - Empty 1002kg (2210lb), max takeoff 1633kg (3600lb), or 1690kg (3725lb) with tip tanks.
PA-39 Turbo - Empty 1097kg (2416lb), max ramp 1690kg (3725lb).

Dimensions  
Wing span 10.97m (36ft 0in) or 11.22m (36ft 10in) with tip tanks, length 7.67m (25ft 2in), height 2.49m (8ft 2in). Wing area 16.5m2 (178sq ft).

Capacity  
Typical seating for four, including pilot in Twin Comanche. Up to six including pilot in Twin Comanche B.

Production  
Total Twin Comanche production was 2156, comprising 2001 PA-30s and 155 PA-39s.


6.Piper PA-31 Chieftain/Mojave/T-1020/T-1040 Eight/ten-seat corporate transport :-
Ans.
The PA-31P-350 Mojave was the last pressurised version of the PA-31 series to be built, while the PA-31-350 Chieftain was a stretched Navajo, built on the smaller Navajo's success in the commuter and charter roles, while the T-120 and T-1040 were airliner developments.
The stretched Navajo Chieftain first appeared in 1973, after Piper began design work in 1971 (delays were caused by the destruction of the second prototype and early production aircraft due to flooding at Piper's Lock Haven plant in June 1972). Originally dubbed the Navajo II, the Navajo Chieftain was intended to compete against the Cessna 402 and to a lesser extent the turboprop powered Beech 99. Changes over the basic Navajo were many, including a 61cm (2ft) fuselage stretch, six side cabin windows, larger doors (an extra crew door was optional), and more powerful and counter rotating 260kW (350hp) TIO-540 engines. From the 1980 model year the PA-31-350 became known simply as the Chieftain, and the type remained in production until October 1984.
Small numbers were also built of the airline optimised T-1020 (based on the Chieftain but "hardened" for airline operations) and the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A powered T-1040 (PA-31T3).
The Mojave was a development of the PA-31P, and its airframe was essentially similar to the turboprop powered PA-31T Cheyenne I's. Changes included less powerful 260kW (350hp) counter rotating IO-540-V2As, a lower cabin pressure differential and longer span wings. Mojaves were built between 1983 and 1986.

Powerplants :-  

PA-31P-350 Mojave - Two 260kW (350hp) Lycoming TIO-540-V2AD turbocharged and fuel injected flat six piston engines driving three blade constant speed Hartzell propellers. 
PA-31-350 Chieftain - Two 260kW (350hp) Lycoming TIO-540-J2BD turbocharged and fuel injected flat sixes.

Performance :-  

PA-31P-350 -
 Max speed 447km/h (241kt),
 max cruising speed 435km/h (235kt), 
long range cruising speed 361km/h (195kt)
. Initial rate of climb 1220ft/min.
 Service ceiling 30,400ft. 
Max range with reserves 2260km (1220nm). 

PA-31-350 - 
Max speed 428km/h (231kt),
 max cruising speed 320km/h (173kt),
 long range cruising speed 254km/h (137kt).
 Initial rate of climb 1120ft/min. 
Operational ceiling 24,000ft. Max range with reserves and standard fuel 1760km (950nm), with optional fuel 2390km (1290nm).

Weights  
PA-31P-350 - Empty equipped 2495kg (5500lb), max takeoff 3265kg (7200lb).
PA-31-350 - Empty equipped 1988kg (4383lb), max takeoff 3175kg (7000lb).

Dimensions  
PA-31P-350 - Wing span 13.56m (44ft 6in), length 10.52m (34ft 6in), height 3.96m (13ft 0in). Wing area 22.0m2 (237sq ft). 
PA-31-350 - Wing span 12.40m (40ft 8in), length 10.55m (34ft 8in), height 3.96m (13ft 0in). Wing area 21.3m2 (229sq ft).

Capacity  
Standard seating in Mojave for seven, including one pilot and passenger, or two pilots on flightdeck, with seating for five behind them. Chieftain has max seating for 10.
Production  

Production : 1827 Chieftain, 52 Mojave, 21 T-1020, 24 T-1040, and 2 experimental PA-31-353.

Type  
Eight/ten seat corporate transport and commuter airliner


7.Piper PA-31 Navajo/Pressurized Navajo Six/eight-seat corporate transport and commuter airliner
Ans.
The Piper PA-31 Navajo is a family of cabin-class, twin-engine aircraft designed and built by Piper Aircraft for the general aviation market, most using Lycoming engines. It was also licence-built in a number of Latin American countries.Targeted at small-scale cargo and feeder liner operations and the corporate market, the aircraft was a success. It continues to prove a popular choice, but due to greatly decreased demand across the general aviation sector in the 1980s, production of the PA-31 ceased in 1984.
At the request of company founder William T. Piper, Piper began development of a six- to eight-seat twin engine corporate and commuter transport aircraft in 1962 under the project name Inca.[2][6] The type, now designated the PA-31 and looking like a scaled-up Twin Comanche, was officially announced in late 1964 after its first flight on 30 September that year. It was a low-wing monoplane with a conventional tail, powered by two 310 hp (231 kW) Lycoming TIO-540-A turbocharged engines in so-called "tiger shark" cowlings, a feature shared with the Twin Comanche and also the PA-23 Aztec. As testing proceeded two cabin windows were added to each side of the fuselage and the engines moved further forward. The PA-31, now named "Navajo" after a Native American tribe, was not certified by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) until 24 February 1966, and deliveries did not begin until the following year, after the type was re-certified in mid-1966 with an increase in maximum take off weight (MTOW) from 6,200 lb (2,812 kg) to 6,500 lb (2,948 kg).
Piper established its T1000 Airliner Division in May 1981 at its Lakeland, Florida factory. There were two aircraft in the T1000 series. The T1020, or more accurately the PA-31-350T1020 was a PA-31-350 Chieftain optimised for and marketed to the commuter airline market. It featured reduced fuel capacity compared to the standard Chieftain, with the 40 US gal (151 l) auxiliary fuel tanks in each wing of the Chieftain not fitted to the T1020. It also had reduced baggage capacity (600 lb (272 kg) maximum instead of the Chieftain's 700 lb (318 kg) maximum) and up to eleven seats. The first T1020 was delivered in December 1981. The second aircraft in the T1000 stable was the T1040 – the PA-31T3 model. The T1040 was a hybrid, featuring the main fuselage of the PA-31-350T1020 with the nose and tail of the PA-31T1 Cheyenne I. The wings were similar to the Cheyenne I's, but with reduced fuel capacity and baggage lockers in the engine nacelles similar to those of the Chieftain. An optional underbelly cargo pod was also available. The Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines were the same as those of the Cheyenne I. Deliveries of the T1040 began in July 1982. A T1050 variant with a fuselage stretch of 11 ft 6 in (3.51 m) and seating capacity of 17 was proposed as a factory conversion of existing aircraft, but did not proceed.

Specifications (PA-31 Navajo)

General characteristics:-

    Crew:                             1 or 2
    Capacity:                        5 to 7 passengers
    Length:                           32 ft 7½ in (9.94 m)
    Wingspan:                      40 ft 8 in (12.40 m)
    Height:                           13 ft 0 in (3.96 m)
    Wing area:                     229 sq. ft (21.3 m²)
    Empty weight:                3,930 lb (1,782 kg)
    Max. takeoff weight:      6,500 lb (2,948 kg)
    Powerplant:                   2 × Lycoming TIO-540-A air-cooled six-cylinder horizontally opposed                         piston engine, 310 hp (231 kW) each
    Propellers:                   Two or three blade, metal, fully feathering, Hartzell propeller

 Performance :-

     Never exceed speed:           236 knots (438 km/h (272 mph))
    Maximum speed:                 227 knots (420 km/h (260 mph)) at 15,000 ft (4,600 m)
    Cruise speed:                      207 knots (383 km/h (238 mph)) econ cruise at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
    Stall speed:                         63.5 knots (118 km/h (73 mph)) flaps down
    Range:                                1,011 nmi (1,875 km (1,165 mi))
    Service ceiling:                 26,300 ft (8,015 m)
    Rate of climb:                    1,445 ft/min (7.3 m/s)

8.Piper PA-31T Cheyenne Twin turboprop corporate transports :-
Ans.
Aimed directly at Beech's successful King Air twin turboprop series, the PA-42 Cheyennes are larger developments of the earlier PA-31T Cheyennes (in turn themselves turboprop developments of the PA-31 Navajo).
The PA-42 Cheyenne III was announced in September 1977. The first production Cheyenne III flew for the first time on May 18 1979 and FAA certification was granted in early 1980. Compared with the Cheyenne II the PA-42 was about 1m (3ft) longer, was powered by 537kW (720shp) PT6A-41 turboshafts and introduced a T-tail, the most obvious external difference between the PA-31T and PA-42. Deliveries of production Cheyenne IIIs began on June 30 1980.
Development and improvement of the III led to the PA-42-720 Cheyenne IIIA, with PT6A-61 engines, a higher service ceiling and revised systems and interior.
The higher powered and significantly faster PA-42-1000 is basically similar to the PA-42-720 except for its far more powerful 745kW (1000hp) Garrett TPE331 turboprops driving four blade propellers. Piper's largest and fastest production aircraft to date, the PA-42-1000 was initially called the Cheyenne IV, before becoming known as the Cheyenne 400LS, and then simply the Cheyenne 400. First flown on February 23 1983, the Cheyenne 400 was delivered from late 1984. Production of the PA-42 ended in February 1993.

Powerplants  :-
PA-42-720 Cheyenne III - Two 535kW (720shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-41 turboprops driving three blade constant speed Hartzell propellers. 
PA-42-1000 Cheyenne 400LS - Two 1225kW (1645shp) derated to 745kW (1000shp) Garrett TPE331-14A/Bs driving four blade Hartzell props.

Performance :-
PA-42-720 - Max speed 537km/h (290kt), max cruising speed 461km/h (250kt), economical cruising speed 413km/h (223kt). Initial rate of climb 2235ft/min. Service ceiling 33,000ft. Range at max cruising speed 3100km (1675nm). 
PA-42-1000 - Max speed 650km/h (351kt), max cruising speed 594km/h (320kt), economical cruising speed 506km/h (273kt). Initial rate of climb 3242ft/min. Range at max cruising speed 3015km (1630nm), range at economical cruising speed 3500km (1890nm).

Weights :-
PA-42-720 - Empty 2900kg (6389lb), max ramp weight 5125kg (11,285lb). 
PA-42-1000 - Empty 3412kg (7522lb), max takeoff 5466kg (12,050lb).

Dimensions :- 
PA-42-720 - Wing span (over tip tanks) 14.53m (47ft 8in), length 13.23m (43ft 5in), height 4.50m (14ft 9in). Wing area 27.2m2 (293.0sq ft). 
PA-42-1000 - Same except for height 5.18m (17ft 0in).

Capacity :- 
One or two pilots on flightdeck, with main cabin seating for between six and nine passengers. Typical seating for six in main cabin in corporate configuration.

Production :- 
Total manufactured 192, including 149 III/IIIAs and 43 400s.

9.Piper PA-32 Cherokee Six, Lance & Saratoga. Six-seat high-performance light Piper PA-34 Seneca Six-place light twin:-
Ans.
The Piper PA-32 Cherokee Six is a series of single engine fixed landing gear light aircraft manufactured in the United States by Piper Aircraft between 1965 and 2007.The PA-32 series began life in 1965 as the 260 horsepower (190 kW) PA32-260 Cherokee Six, a significantly modified six (or seven) seat development of the PA-28 Cherokee.The Cherokee Six and its successors feature a baggage compartment in the nose between the cockpit and the engine compartment as well as a large double door in the back for easy loading of passengers and cargo.

Specifications (1972 model PA-32-300) :-
Data from 1972 Piper Cherokee Six 300 "E" Owner's Handbook

General characteristics:-

Crew: One

Capacity: five passengers (or six with optional seat)

Length: 27.7 ft in (8.4 m)
Wingspan: 32.8 ft in (10.0 m)
Height: 7.9 ft in (2.4 m)
Wing area: 174.5 ft2 (16.5 m2)
Wing profile: NACA 65-415
Empty weight: 1788 lb (811 kg)
Gross weight: 3400 lb (1542 kg)

Powerplant::-
 1 × Lycoming IO-540-K1A5, 300 hp (225 kW)

Performance:-
Maximum speed: 174 mph (280 km/h)
Cruise speed: 168 mph (272 km/h)
Range: 840 miles (1361 km)
Service ceiling: 16250 ft (4950 m)
Rate of climb: 1050 ft/min (5.3 m/s)

10.Piper PA-36 Pawnee Brave Agricultural aircraft :-
Ans.
Piper announced in 1972 a completely new version of the PA-25 Pawnee agricultural aircraft which introduced a more powerful Continental Tiara 6-285 flat-six engine of 213kW, a new cantilever wing, new safety features, filtration of the air entering the pilot's ventilated and heated cockpit, and a larger standard chemical hopper of 0.85m3 or, optionally, 1.08m3 capacity. Designated Piper PA-36 Pawnee Brave, the new model began to enter service in 1973, and in 1977 an additional version with a 224kW Avco Lycoming IO-540-K1G5 engine became available, the designations of these two aircraft then becoming PA-36 Pawnee Brave 285 and PA-36 Pawnee Brave 300. In 1978 this latter aircraft became the standard model, a new PA-36 Pawnee Brave 375 being introduced with a 280kW Avco Lycoming IO-720-D1CD flat-eight engine, and equipped with the larger of the two chemical hoppers as standard. These were to remain in production with Piper until rights for both versions of the PA-36 were acquired by WTA Inc. in 1981. This latter company was marketing this agricultural aircraft in two versions, the version with the 280kW engine now being the basic model and redesignated PA-36 New Brave 375. It was available optionally with a 298kW IO-720-D1C engine under the designation PA-36 New Brave 400.

Specifications:-
 
 MODEL PA-36 Pawnee Brave 300 Type
 
CREW 1

 ENGINE 1 x Avco Lycoming IO-540-K1G5 flat-six piston engine, 224kW

 WEIGHTS:-
    Take-off weight 1996 kg 4400 lb
    Loaded weight 989 kg 2180 lb
 
DIMENSIONS:-
    Wingspan 11.89 m 39 ft 0 in
    Length 8.34 m 27 ft 4 in
    Height 2.29 m 8 ft 6 in
    Wing area 20.96 m2 225.61 sq ft
 PERFORMANCE
    Cruise speed 229 km/h 142 mph
    Ceiling 1950 m 6400 ft
    Range 740 km 460 miles

11.Piper PA-38 Tomahawk Two-seat light aircraft and basic trainer:-
Ans.
The Piper PA-38-112 Tomahawk is a two-seat, fixed tricycle gear general aviation airplane, originally designed for flight training, touring and personal use.The Tomahawk was Piper's attempt at creating an affordable two-place trainer. Before designing the aircraft, Piper widely surveyed flight instructors for their input into the design. Instructors requested a more spinnable aircraft for training purposes, since other two-place trainers such as the Cessna 150 and 152 were designed to spontaneously fly out of a spin. The Tomahawk's NASA[1] GA(W)-1 Whitcomb airfoil addresses this requirement by making specific pilot input necessary in recovering from spins, thus allowing pilots to develop proficiency in dealing with spin recovery.

Production
Tomahawk Cockpit
The Tomahawk was introduced in 1977 as a 1978 model. The aircraft was in continuous production until 1982 when production was completed, with 2,484 aircraft built.
The 1981 and 1982 models were designated as the Tomahawk II. They incorporated improved cabin heating and windshield defroster performance, an improved elevator trim system, improved engine thrust vector, 100% airframe zinc-chromate anti-corrosion treatment, better cockpit soundproofing, larger 6" wheels and tires for greater propeller ground clearance and improved performance on grass and dirt runways, among other enhancements.

Specifications (PA-38-112 Tomahawk II) :-]

General characteristics :-

Crew: 2
Length: 23 ft 1¼ in (7.04 m)
Wingspan: 34 ft 0 in (10.36 m)
Height: 9 ft 0¾ in (2.76 m)
Wing area: 124.7 ft² (11.59 m²)
Airfoil: NASA GAW-1
Empty weight: 1,128 lb (512 kg)
Max. takeoff weight: 1,670 lb (757 kg)
Powerplant: 1 × Avco Lycoming O-235-L2C air-cooled flat-four piston engine, 112 hp (83.5 kW)

Performance :-
Never exceed speed: 159 mph (138 knots, 256 km/h)
Maximum speed: 126 mph (109 knots, 202 km/h) at sea level
Cruise speed: 115 mph (100 knots, 185 km/h) at 10,500 ft (3,200 m) (65% power)
Stall speed: 56.5 mph (49 knots, 91 km/h) (IAS), flaps down
Range: 539 miles (468 nmi, 867 km) at 10,500 ft (3,200 m), (65% power)
Service ceiling: 13,000 ft (4,000 m)
Rate of climb: 718 ft/min (3.65 m/s)

12.Piper PA-42 Cheyenne III, IIIA & 400LS Twin turboprop corporate transports :-
Ans.
Aimed directly at Beech's successful King Air twin turboprop series, the PA-42 Cheyennes are larger developments of the earlier PA-31T Cheyennes (in turn themselves turboprop developments of the PA-31 Navajo).
The PA-42 Cheyenne III was announced in September 1977. The first production Cheyenne III flew for the first time on May 18 1979 and FAA certification was granted in early 1980. Compared with the Cheyenne II the PA-42 was about 1m (3ft) longer, was powered by 537kW (720shp) PT6A-41 turboshafts and introduced a T-tail, the most obvious external difference between the PA-31T and PA-42. Deliveries of production Cheyenne IIIs began on June 30 1980.
Development and improvement of the III led to the PA-42-720 Cheyenne IIIA, with PT6A-61 engines, a higher service ceiling and revised systems and interior.
The higher powered and significantly faster PA-42-1000 is basically similar to the PA-42-720 except for its far more powerful 745kW (1000hp) Garrett TPE331 turboprops driving four blade propellers. Piper's largest and fastest production aircraft to date, the PA-42-1000 was initially called the Cheyenne IV, before becoming known as the Cheyenne 400LS, and then simply the Cheyenne 400. First flown on February 23 1983, the Cheyenne 400 was delivered from late 1984. Production of the PA-42 ended in February 1993.

Powerplants:-  
PA-42-720 Cheyenne III - Two 535kW (720shp) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-41 turboprops driving three blade constant speed Hartzell propellers. 
PA-42-1000 Cheyenne 400LS - Two 1225kW (1645shp) derated to 745kW (1000shp) Garrett TPE331-14A/Bs driving four blade Hartzell props.

Performance :-  
PA-42-720 - Max speed 537km/h (290kt), max cruising speed 461km/h (250kt), economical cruising speed 413km/h (223kt). Initial rate of climb 2235ft/min. Service ceiling 33,000ft. Range at max cruising speed 3100km (1675nm). 
PA-42-1000 - Max speed 650km/h (351kt), max cruising speed 594km/h (320kt), economical cruising speed 506km/h (273kt). Initial rate of climb 3242ft/min. Range at max cruising speed 3015km (1630nm), range at economical cruising speed 3500km (1890nm).

Weights  
:-PA-42-720 - Empty 2900kg (6389lb), max ramp weight 5125kg (11,285lb). 
PA-42-1000 - Empty 3412kg (7522lb), max takeoff 5466kg (12,050lb).

Dimensions:-  
PA-42-720 - Wing span (over tip tanks) 14.53m (47ft 8in), length 13.23m (43ft 5in), height 4.50m (14ft 9in). Wing area 27.2m2 (293.0sq ft). 
PA-42-1000 - Same except for height 5.18m (17ft 0in).

Capacity:-  
One or two pilots on flightdeck, with main cabin seating for between six and nine passengers. Typical seating for six in main cabin in corporate configuration.

Production:-  
Total manufactured 192, including 149 III/IIIAs and 43 400s.


Regards,
Ankesh Srivastava
AeroSoft Corp.






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