Sunday 21 July 2013

British Aerospace Jetstream 31

British Aerospace Jetstream 31 18-Seat regional Turboprop Airliner

The Jetstream 31 and the Jetstream 32EP are 18-seat turboprop airliners in operation worldwide. The Jetstream 31 entered service in 1982 and the increased power Jetstream 32 in 1988. BAE Systems completed an upgrade programme for the Jetstream 32 resulting in the Jetstream 32EP (enhanced performance) aircraft, certificated in 1997, which has short field capability and hot and high operational performance. Over 400 Jetstream 31/32 aircraft have been delivered.
The enhancements to EP standard are available as an upgrade to Jetstream 32 aircraft and include improvements in the capability of the Goodrich braking system, the installation of drag reduction devices, propeller ground idle adjustment and V speed operation, alternative take-off flap settings and revisions to the flight manual. The enhancements to the braking system provide substantial improvement in the aircraft's short field performance.


The flight deck has been ergonomically designed for an efficient and comfortable working environment for the pilot and co-pilot. There is a dual flight instrumentation system and the system controls are grouped on the centre and roof panels accessible by both members of crew. The central annunciator panel allows routine system monitoring and reduced pilot workload. The pilots have two direct vision windows that slide open for direct communication with ramp staff.
The Jetstream 31 is fitted with Rockwell Collins Pro Line I avionics. The Jetstream 32EP is equipped with Rockwell Collins Pro Line II with digital control heads.
A number of avionics fits are available as options including a second automatic direction finder (ADF) or distance measuring equipment (DME), a traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS), a ground proximity warning system (GPWS), a Honeywell SPZ-500 automatic pilot and a global positioning system (GPS).


The aircraft is of aluminium alloy construction with fail safe wing structure and semi-monocoque fail safe fuselage. The 7.39m long cabin can be configured as an 18 or 19 seat airliner with galley and toilet facilities, an eight or ten seat executive shuttle or as an air ambulance for two or four stretcher patients with seating for one to seven medical attendants.
Pressurisation and air conditioning are provided by an engine air bleed system, with warm air provided at floor level and cold air through overhead outlets. There is a separate flight deck temperature control.
The aircraft features easy access for inspections and maintenance, for example the engines are fitted with large removable cowlings and the equipment is logically grouped by function.


The Jetstream 31 and the 32EP are fitted with Honeywell TPE331 engines. The engines burn 30 to 40% less fuel than previous generation engines. The engines are fitted with Dowty 106in (2.69m) reversing four-bladed metal propellers. An optional McCauley four-blade variable and reversible pitch fully feathering propeller is available for the Jetstream 32EP. The engines single shaft design provides rapid power response in the event of a missed approach or an emergency go-around manoeuvre.
The modular construction of the engine allows for easy and economical maintenance. The high air intake, paired with a rugged centrifugal compressor, provides high resistance to foreign object damage. Engine performance can be enhanced by the addition of an Automatic Power Reserve (APR) or a water-methanol injection system. The water methanol injection system restores power towards the flat rated torque by increasing the mass flow through the engine for normal take-off under hot and high climatic conditions. The automatic power reserve restores power by up to 5% to the live engine in the event of engine failure on take-off.
There are two integral fuel tanks with two-stage engine driven pumps. The tanks are connected through a cross feed valve. Each tank has overwing gravity refuelling.


The aircraft is fitted with hydraulically operated retractable tricycle landing gear with Dunlop wheels and tyres. The hydraulic nosewheel has 45° steering with a full range caster for towing. The wheels are fitted with anti-skid brakes as standard.


The aircraft is suited for conversion for special operations configurations, for example military communications and exclusive economic zone patrol. Two Jetstream 31 aircraft customised with Tornado avionics systems were commissioned into the fleet of the Royal Saudi Air Force for training in advanced navigation systems.


Scottish Aviation had taken over production of the original Jetstream design from Handley Page and when it was nationalised along with other British companies into British Aerospace (now BAE Systems) in 1978, BAe decided the design was worth further development, and started work on a "Mark 3" Jetstream. As with the earlier 3M version for the USAF, the new version was re-engined with newer Garrett turboprops which offered more power (flat rated to 1,020 shp/760 kW with a thermodynamic limit of 1,100 shp/820 kW) and longer overhaul intervals over the original Turbomeca units. This allowed the aircraft to be offered in an 18-seat option (six rows, 2+1), with an offset aisle, and with a water methanol option for the engine to allow the ability to operate at maximum load from a greater range of airfields, particularly in the continental United States and Australia.

The result was the Jetstream 31, which first flew on 28 March 1980, being certificated in the UK on 29 June 1982. The new version proved to be as popular as Handley Page hoped the original model would be, and several hundred 31s were built during the 1980s. In 1985, a further engine upgrade was planned, which flew in 1988 as the Jetstream Super 31, also known as the Jetstream 32. Production continued until 1993, by which time 386 31/32s had been produced. Four Jetstream 31s were ordered for the Royal Navy in 1985 as radar observer trainers, the Jetstream T.3, but were later used for VIP transport.

In 1993, British Aerospace adopted the Jetstream name as their brand name for all twin turboprop aircraft. As well as the Jetstream 31 and Jetstream 32, it also built the related Jetstream 41 and the unrelated, but co-branded BAe ATP/Jetstream 61. The Jetstream 61 never entered service, and retained its "ATP" marketing name.

In December 2008, a total of 128 BAe Jetstream 31 and 32 aircraft remained in airline service. Major operators include: Pascan Aviation (9), Direktflyg (7), Sun Air of Scandinavia (3), Jet Air (4), Blue Islands (5), Air National of New Zealand (5) and AIS Airlines (2). Some 40 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the types.

In July 2008, a BAE Systems team that included Cranfield Aerospace and the National Flight Laboratory Centre at Cranfield University achieved a major breakthrough in unmanned air systems technology. The team flew a series of missions, totalling 800 mi (1,290 km), in a specially modified Jetstream 31 (G-BWWW) without any human intervention, This was the first time such an undertaking had been achieved.

Other Jetstream versions

Jetstream 31 Airliner : 18/19 passenger commuter airliner.
Jetstream 31 Corporate : 8/10 passenger executive transport aircraft.
Jetstream 31EP : Enhanced performance.
Jetstream 31EZ : EEZ or maritime patrol version.
Jetstream Executive Shuttle : 12-seat executive transport aircraft.
Jetstream 31 Special : Utility transport aircraft.
Jetstream 32EP : Passenger Aircraft with extra baggage space. Room for 19 People.
Jetstream QC : Quick Change
Jetstream 41 : 29 passenger aircraft.

Current Civil operators

Aerolínea de Antioquia
Pascan Aviation
Starlink Aviation
East Coast Airways
Aeropelican Air Services
SALSA d'Haiti
Sunrise Airways
Tortug' Air
Aerolineas Sosa
Flugfélagið Ernir
Skylan Airways
AIS Airlines
Barents Airlink
United Kingdom
Amber Airways
Blue Islands
Jet Air
Proflight Commuter Services
Dominican Republic
Pan Am World Airways Dominicana
New Zealand
TBA Trinidad and Tobago
Briko air services
Former Civil operators

Coast Air
New Zealand
Origin Pacific Airways
Angel Airlines
United Kingdom
Brymon European Airways
United States
Corporate Airlines
Pan American World Airways
Trans States Airlines
Express I Airlines
Express II Airlines
O'Connor Airlines
Skywest Airlines
Military operators

Saudi Arabia
Royal Saudi Air Force
United Kingdom
Royal Navy retired from RN use in 2011.
Accident and incidents

On 26 December 1989, United Express Flight 2415 operated by N410UE of North Pacific Airlines crashed short of the runway at Tri-Cities Airport, Washington, USA. The crew executed an excessively steep and unstabilized ILS approach. That approach, along with improper air traffic control commands and aircraft icing, caused the aircraft to stall. Both crew members and all four passengers were killed.

On 01 December 1993, Northwest Airlink/Express II Airlines Flight 5719 had a controlled flight into terrain killing all crew and passengers.

On 13 December 1994, Flagship Airlines Flight 3379 stalled and crashed after one of the engines failed as the flight was on approach to Raleigh-Durham International Airport killing 15 of the 20 passengers and crew.

On 12 May 2000, an East Coast Aviation Services Jetstream (N16EJ) crashed into terrain on the flight second approach into Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Airport killing all 19 passengers and crew on the aircraft.

On 8 July 2000, Aerocaribe Flight 7831 crashed into a mountainous area as the aircraft was on approach into Carlos Rovirosa Pérez International Airport and killed all 19 passengers and crew.

On 19 October 2004, Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 crashed on approach to Kirksville Regional Airport killing 13 out of 15 passengers and crew.

On 18 November 2004, Venezolana Flight 213 crashed into a fire station on landing at Simón Bolívar International Airport (Venezuela) after a flight from Juan Pablo Perez Alfonso Airport. Four passengers were killed out of 21 passengers and crew on the flight.

On 8 February 2008, Eagle Airways Flight 2279 was hijacked by a passenger over New Zealand just after taking off from Woodbourne Airport. The copilot managed to restrain the hijacker eventually and landed safely at Christchurch International Airport the two pilots were injured and one passengers was also injured in the hijacking.

Specifications (Jetstream 31)

General characteristics
Crew: 2
Capacity: 19 passengers
Length: 47 ft 1¾ in (14.37 m)
Wingspan: 52 ft 0 in (15.85 m)
Height: 17 ft 5½ in (5.32 m)
Wing area: 271 ft² (25.2 m²)
Airfoil: NACA 63A418 at root, NACA 63A412 at tip
Empty weight: 9,613 lb (4,360 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 15,332 lb (6,950 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Garrett TPE331-10UG turboprop, 940 shp (701 kW) each

Maximum speed: 263 kn (303 mph, 488 km/h)
Cruise speed: 230 kn (264 mph, 426 km/h)
Stall speed: 86 kn (99 mph, 159 km/h)
Range: 680 nmi (783 mi, 1,260 km)
Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
Rate of climb: 2,080 ft/min (10.6 m/s)
Wing loading: 56.6 lb/ft² (276 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.123 hp/lb (0.201 kW/kg)

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